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CHI-WEB  October 2000, Week 5

CHI-WEB October 2000, Week 5

Subject:

Ethnography Summary (long)

From:

Kayla Block <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Mon, 30 Oct 2000 10:10:34 -0800

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (221 lines)

"Ethnography" is the study of human behavior through observation in the
natural context.  It is one method for determining what users want you to
build, what features and functions it should have and how it should be
structured.

The strength of this method is the richness of the context.  Because users
cannot always articulate every step of a process or every aspect of the
circumstances under which a product will be used, watching them perform the
desired behavior can be much more enlightening than simply asking them about
it.  The weakness of this approach is the time required.  Effective
ethnographic observations should be at least several hours long, and should
be videotaped for review.

Ethnographic research comes from the anthropological tradition.  While it
may appear to be a simple task to observe people, a trained, experienced
social scientist can maximize the benefit of the data gathering and
analysis.

I'd be happy to answer any further questions you may have.

Kathi Kaiser
Senior User Experience Specialist
Giant Step
=======================

From the book, The ethnographic interview, by Spradley:

"Ethnography is the work of describing a culture. The essential core of this
activity aims to understand another way of life from the native point of
view. The goal of ethnography...is to grasp.... *his* vision of *his*
world..... Rather that *studying people*, ethnography means *learning from
people*..."

In the context of UCD, we can use a more informal version of ethnography. It
helps us to answer the question "What should we design, what do people
really need."  It is learning from the "target audience" through observation
and/or interviewing (not question-answer interviewing but what I like to
call 'conversations with a purpose'). Talking to them, or just observing
them in their typical day, in the context of their world. This type of
learning should happen very early in the process of design. It is different
from traditional ethnography in that we can't spend the same amount of time
or get as immersed in a culture as a true anthropologist can. We may spend
anywhere from a couple of days to a few weeks. But rarely do our clients
have the money to do much more than that. The beauty of it, in my
experience, is that you can do it fairly inexpensively

A quick example: If I were designing a Personal Finance site, I would want
to spend some time with people from the target audience group. I would want
to maybe follow them throughout their day noticing when and how the subject
of Personal Finance comes up. What types of information and tools do they
use to make decisions. When. Why. What motivates them, what are their needs.
Where do they struggle, have conflicts, create workarounds? (a workaround is
when there is no product existing so you create a way to do what you need to
do.) Conflicts and workarounds are especially exciting to me because they
are huge opportunities. If you can solve one of them you are usually way
ahead of your competition.

Anyway, I know this is rather long and I feel like I have so many other
things I could say and talk about in regards to this subject. I did this
type of work in the product design industry. We were very successful. I have
yet to see it become a part of our process here in the interactive industry.
But that is my goal!!!

Good luck, please let me know what you learn. :) Katie
=====================

Kayla, I think that "ethnography" is the rather intimidating and academic
term for what Beyer and Holtzblatt have termed "Contextual Design" or
Contextual Inquiry. It really means no more than doing user research in the
context that the user will use the system or product: "living with the
natives." IOW, go watch your users doing purchase ordering if you're
building a PO system.  Sit there and ask them, "what are you doing now, why
did you do that, who was that on the phone, how do they fit into your work,
etc."

andrew

(Kayla replies: they are both sort of jargony, but while I'm familiar with
(and have done) contextual inquiry....I didn't realize it was the same as
ethnography.)
====================

I'm sure an anthropologist would have the most precise definition.  However,
my understanding of ethnography is that it is an analysis technique
involving observation of people (or in UCD terms - users) doing whatever it
is they do.  It differs from pure task analysis because the intention of
ethnography is to examine behaviors in an attempt to ascribe thoughts,
believes, feelings, etc. to the subject.  From a UCD perspective, it is
useful for understanding a user's motivations for or reactions to using
technology.
Hope this helps.
-Sally

Sally Cohen
Project Director
Human Factors International
Atlanta, Georgia  30319
(770) 454-6656
[log in to unmask]
===================

You may want to visit the following link to Intel's web site, which
discusses the role of one of their social scientists, Dr. Genevieve Bell,
who is responsible for the study of ethnography in their IAL (Intel
Architecture Labs).  According to Bell, "ethnographic-inspired work allows
us to get at that disconnect between what people say they do and what they
really are doing."

http://www.intel.com/ial/about/people/bell.htm

Hope it helps.

Tony Di Giosia

====================

Observing users in their real environment (going to their work), noting
their "artifacts" that are present, and watching them complete a real task.

Sincerely,
Kristin

e-business strategy group
www.virchowkrause.com
608.240.2473

================

Ethnography or rather applied ethnographical research is a core part of
anthropology. Anthopologists study the behaviour and culture of some ethnic
groups in an attempt to predict future behaviour patterns. Lately
ehnographical research is much heard buzz-word in our community and it
started with the idea of figuring out behaviour patterns of multi-ethnic
users of our Internet/software world. Tools and techniques that
anthopologists use are gaining in popularity now.

Vikas

==============

James Hom's Usability Methods Toolbox

   http://www.best.com/~jthom/usability/

has information about ethnography at

   http://www.best.com/~jthom/usability/fieldobs.htm

James now works for us here at Scient, as do some outstanding ethnographers.

Mitchell Gass
Director, Usability Engineering and User Research
[log in to unmask]
415-591-4920 voice
415-637-6552 mobile
415-733-8299 fax
Scient (R): Innovate - For What's Next. (TM)
One Front Street, 28th Floor
San Francisco, CA 94111
http://www.scient.com/

==================

n order to understand why people behave the way they do, cultural
anthropologists research the social mores, practices, belief systems, etc.
of a culture or sub-culture. The written form of these qualitative studies
is an ethnography. "Nisa", an account of a woman who lives among the !Kung
people in South Africa, is an excellent example of an ethnography.

To become familiar with the desires, expectations, cognitive models, and
needs of a specific user segment, a user-centered designer might conduct
ethnographic research.

The problem is that if you say "ethnographic research" most clients will
think: This is not National Geographic. So you might want to call it
something else... perhaps "qualitative user research."

--Best,

Stefan

===============

Ethnography is the study of organisms in their environment without
disturbing them (pioneered by Konrad Lorenz, I think). Think of Jane Goodall
and the Gombe chimps, or watching wild birds from a blind. In UCD
ethnography is observing users in their environment (you want to see the
"natural context").

This is the thinking behind Contextual Inquiry and other site visits...the
researcher gets into the user's environment instead of bringing users into
an artificial environment (usability lab,etc).

While you don't need to go so far as to build a blind in a fake bookcase,
you will learn a lot by sitting in a corner and just watching.

In particular you will be looking at
User profiles
User goals
Typical activities (task analysis)
User's Environment (physical and social/organizational)

You will have much clearer insight into actual behavior from this kind of
observation. Surveys and focus groups get a lot of preference data, but are
weak in capturing actual behavior. Same with interviews (though if you've
observed your interviewee, you are much more informed and can then ask about
actual behavior, instead of being told how the user is supposed to do the
activity, as opposed to how they actually do it in day to day practice).

In UCD ethnography isn't as rigorous as in the academic sense of the word,
and will generally be combined with other user research, especially one on
one interviews.

see
www.incent.com
http://www.best.com/~jthom/usability/fieldobs.htm

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August 1997, Week 1
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July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
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June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
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January 1997, Week 5

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