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CHI-WEB  November 2000, Week 3

CHI-WEB November 2000, Week 3

Subject:

Re: eCommerce & usability (long)

From:

Carolyn Snyder <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Carolyn Snyder <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 19 Nov 2000 09:19:44 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (156 lines)

Perhaps I can clarify some of the issues raised by Rick Tilghman about the
e-commece study funded by Nielsen Norman Group, given that I'm the one who
actually conducted all the US tests. (Rolf Molich and Sofie Scheutz of
DialogDesign did the Danish tests. Jakob Nielsen and his colleague Susan
Farrell were very involved in the design of the study and analysis of the
results, but relied on Rolf, Sofie, and me to conduct the tests in an
accurate and professional way.)

I've also given 90-minute presentations of our results, and in such a short
time it's impossible to go into enough depth about every finding to answer
everyone's questions. The several hundred pages we wrote about the study
don't contain the answers to all web design questions either. But that's why
we have professional forums like CHI-WEB - to hash out the fascinating
details.

> we were told that "the study was conducted in some rented space in someone
> else's office over 56k lines on borrowed computers" (I'm paraphrasing
here).
> No testing facility, one-way glass, established environment, randomized
user
> sampling, etc.

I think the mistaken impression from the above paraphrasing
is that it sounds like we just showed up in someone's office and started
testing. Our test facilities were temporary, but carefully assembled.

Of the hundreds of usability tests I've done in my life, for maybe 10% of
them I was testing in an official usability lab equipped with cameras,
one-way mirror, video editing equipment, etc. That stuff is nice, but
usually not necessary. To test web sites, all you really need is a computer,
an Internet connection (we chose a 56k dial-up connection because it's very
common), a trained facilitator, and a room free of distractions. And bingo -
now you have a test facility.

The question to ask is "If our test facility had had X, how would it have
affected our results?" I honestly don't see how fancy equipment would have
improved the quality of the data we obtained in this study. For example, a
one-way mirror wouldn't have changed anything because in the tests I
conducted I acted as both facilitator and note-taker - there wouldn't have
been anyone sitting behind that one-way mirror! There are several lab
facilities I could have rented, but a formal lab would have increased the
costs substantially without adding corresponding value. Thus, we made a
deliberate decision to construct our own temporary facilities in both the US
and Denmark.

Yes, there were maybe a handful of times when I might have wished to review
a videotape to ferret out a detail, but for the most part, our hundreds of
pages of typed observations collected in a consistent manner supplied data
in sufficient depth and accuracy to allow us to draw substantiated
conclusions.

> One particularly bad point made in the presentation I saw was that "users
> don't like drop-down menus, especially the state drop-down in registration
> forms."  However, there wasn't one contrarian example such as a straight
> text-field entry situation to gauge the statement against.  Nor did the
> testers approach or discuss the problems that arise if and when user's are
> allowed to freely input there state information.

The statement that "users hate drop-down state menus" is the tip of an
iceberg. Here's the iceberg... 16 of the 39 users I tested made a
spontaneous negative comment about the state drop-downs as they were filling
out an order form. I hadn't asked them anything about it, so this struck me
as a pretty significant minority. Only one user used the arrow keys to
navigate through the list - something that surprised me, as I use arrow keys
all the time. On forms where the user could simply type in the state (only a
couple of our 20 sites used this approach) there were no negative comments
and perhaps (though I'd have to check this) even a positive one or two.

One theory about drop-downs is that they eliminate errors. But in this
study, I saw users who were trying to enter NH for New Hampshire mistakenly
end up with North Carolina or Hawaii instead. I also saw instances where the
user made an error in entering the city or zip code and didn't notice it.
Some of the sites validated the city, state, and zip code, and some didn't
(I don't have exact figures on this). But of the sites that had drop-downs
for the state field, there were instances where users completed the form
using data that might have caused a problem with delivery, such as the wrong
zip code. Lesson learned: order forms should cross-validate city, state, and
zip code. And given that the form has to validate this information anyway,
why not let users enter the state using their preferred method?

And this state drop-down thing was a very minor issue compared to the many
show-stoppers we saw in the study... so in a 90-minute presentation, about
all we have time for is "Users despise state drop-downs." But believe me,
the iceberg of data is there beneath this and other conclusions from our
study.

> This bring me to another large point... there were absolutely NO
> specifically targeted issues or goals of the Nielsen study aside from
> "ecommerce" usability.  That's mind-boggling.  Imagine consumer reports
> testing cars on whether they started on the first try... how does that
tell
> you ANYTHING useful about the subject being tested?  You should identify
10
> specific issues that continuously confront users or are the primary
reasons
> (identified via research or polling) for users abandonijng sites, and test
> all the solutions/approaches employed to see which are viable and which
are
> not.

I think it was Einstein who said, "As our circle of knowledge expands, so
does the circumference of the darkness surrounding it." I definitely had
that feeling after conducting this study - I have far more questions than I
started with! But if we'd tried to pick just 10 things up front and design
controlled experiments around them, we would have missed some of the most
important results of the study - the insights obtained by identifying the
patterns in a large amount of qualitative data. Read on for an example...

> Another point: the study did an analysis of search presentations and
> concluded that users will, at a maximum, view 3 pages of results before
> abandoning search for an alternate approach.  However, when I asked if
this
> was simply "linked pages" or total results/pages the presenter had no
data.
> This is an important distinction... if I provide a user with a "view all"
> function or increase the result set to 50 from 20, will the user scroll
the
> list and abandon after 3 pages worth of data, or will they still view 3
> pages of links regardless of presentation (and browse 150 results as
opposed
> to the earlier 60).  Given, this may increase load time slightly based on
> the system employed, but is the trade of worth it? No data... it wasn't
> "sampled."

This is a great example of "if we'd known we were going to see this pattern,
we could have studied it differently." None of our test sites allowed the
user to specify the size or format of search results pages, which is
definitely something I'd like to test now that I've seen that most people
viewed no more than 2-3 pages of results on sites where there were anywhere
from 6 to 20 products per page. (And I've since been looking for - and
finding - this pattern in other studies I've done for my clients.)

But in thinking about it further, I take it back - rather than manipulate
the number of results per page, I'd much rather study sites that allow users
to "winnow" the set of products into a manageable set that's small enough to
study in detail. Based on our data from the Sears site, winnowing is a
promising strategy. In other words, my personal theory is that allowing
users to focus on the number of results is an inherently inferior approach
to one that allows them to manipulate variables they care about (like price
or product features) to arrive at an optimal set of results. So yes, one
could carefully design a controlled experiment around the number of results
per page but end up missing the forest for the trees.

This stuff certainly is fascinating. :-)

Carolyn

Snyder Consulting
Usability, design, writing
(603) 890-2411
www.snyderconsulting.net

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