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CHI-WEB  February 2001, Week 4

CHI-WEB February 2001, Week 4

Subject:

Summary: To Click or To Hover, That Is the Question (Long)

From:

Todd Lemoine <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Todd Lemoine <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 26 Feb 2001 09:10:26 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (244 lines)

Resubmitting for posting.

-----Original Message-----
From: Todd Lemoine
Sent: Thursday, February 22, 2001 9:06 AM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Summary: To Click or To Hover, That Is the Question (Long)


(Finally got that subject line right, *whew*...)

Thanks to everyone that responded to my query about DHTML nav menu:

"I'm hoping to gather a few opinions and experiences with DHTML global nav
menus (a la Microsoft.com, eddiebauer.com, et al). Seems that most sites
that use this type of nav let you activate the menu by hovering over the
option, instead of clicking on it, as you might in your OS. I can think of
arguments for both styles, but would very much like to know everyone else's
thoughts and experiences with them (specifically, is there a reason you went
with clicking instead of hovering or vice versa)."

Not only was what I received extraordinarily helpful, but the responses were
more substantive than I ever could have hoped for. Thanks again.

Quickly: Responses were about half and half for the click vs hover question,
with nearly everyone agreeing that it really depends on the purpose of the
site and the site's audience.

Arguments for clicking:
* Potentially "cleaner," much less intrusive solution
* Mimics menus in your OS
* They only appear when you want them to (and therefore not unnecessarily
obscure content)

Arguments for hovering:
* immediate feedback
* more in line with the interaction paradigm set by the Web (as opposed to
your OS) -- that clicking on something results in a new page.
* it's just one less click to force upon site visitors

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Those are the basic arguments, but there was some great anecdotal support
for both as well:

Seems to me that hovering to activate the menu makes sense for the web.  In
Windows Apps, a click selects and a double click activates.  On the web,
however, there is no real concept of click selection (that's why Hotmail
uses checkboxes to select messages for moving and deletion).  Instead,
clicking is the primary gesture for navigation.  Under this convention, I
don't think users would expect to click on an item and not be brought to
another page.

To hover, rather than to click, that is the answer.

-Gerard


-------------------------------------------------------------------------
I'm not a huge fan of those DHTML menus for the most part. My experience
watching people (other than web designers) navigate the web leads me to
believe that the informavore model that describes how humans hunt for
information is pretty accurate. Users do not, as a rule, carefully read
everything on a page before deciding which link is the correct one. They
also tend not to place their mouse pointer over each object on a page
and wait for a reaction. Mostly, if they're after something, they tend
to skim the page and click on the first thing that seems promising. By
the time a DHTML menu pops up, it's too late. If the meaningful
navigation is invisible, this could spell disaster.

That said, these things have their place. So to get to your question: It
depends on what you've got in those menus, but I believe that the
mouseover option is often the better one. It alerts the user to the
choices in the menu -- and to the fact that the menus exist at all --
before the s/he has committed to a click. A menu that pops up only after
a click essentially says, "Thanks for clicking. Now try again to find
your information with a completely new set of options."

Jeff Harrison
Information Architect
Javelin Solutions

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
I favor the onClick navigational strategy for DHTML menus.  It's a much
cleaner solution, and avoids the confusion users can encounter when, while
mousing over various site elements, layers appear and disappear seemingly
without structure or merit.  That said, I think the Fidelity Investments
site (http://www.fidelity.com) offers an interesting focal point for the
argument.  You'll notice that on Fidelity's site (which uses the onClick
implementation), they have eschewed the convention of category home/main
pages in favor of leading users directly to the sub-categories they are
interested in - so the Fidelity example indicates that your decision about
click-vs-hover might be wise to consider the overall architecture of your
site.  If you want users to go to a "main" page in each category, the
onMouseover choice might be a better solution, but if you want users to go
directly to sub-category pages, the onClick solution is probably superior.

Hope it helps!  I look forward to reading the rest of your replies.

Cheers,
Karuna Venter
Information Architect
Rare Medium, Los Angeles


-------------------------------------------------------------------------
We're in the process of redesigning our site and are implementing similar
menus. We went with the "don't-open-until-clicked-on" variety for several
reasons.

1) onMouseOver menus pop up when you don't want them to pop up. When the
menus are at the top of the page going across, they can pop up
"accidentally" when the user mouses over them when moving their cursor
between the two most frequently-used buttons in the browser -- the back
button and the scroll-down arrow. Since our menus are going across the page,
they would definately interfere with this commonly-used onscreen path and
would pop up automatically.

2) They mimic the way menus function in your OS. Familiarity for the user
ensures that they don't have to relearn tasks or learn new tasks just for
your site.

3) When menus obscure content (as Microsoft's and Eddie Bauer's do, and ours
would), you want them only to appear when the user needs them, and not when
they're just trying to look at the content. I've seen this happen especially
with less experienced users who get confused and distracted by animations
and changes in the page like these. This goes along with #1, but I'll also
add that I've seen many sites that have onMouseOver menus that won't go away
when I want them to. They're either timed or written incorrectly, and even
after my mouse leaves the menu area and I click somewhere on the page, the
menu is still visible. I think this is a much bigger problem than the hover
vs. click question.

Hope this helped.

--
Jeff Lash / Information Architect
XPLANE / The visual thinking company.
http://www.xplane.com

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Our product (SiteScape Forum collaboration software) is a web
*application* (not an e-commerce site like Eddie Bauer or an
information-based site like Micrsoft). It would be interesting
to know if type of web site makes any difference.

In any event, we decided on clicks rather than hover because of
the annoyance factors of 1) having menus spntaneously pop up as
the mouse moves over the page and 2) having the mouse slip off
the menu, making it disappear. Our model is that the user clicks
on the menu, surveys the menu picks, says something like, "ah, that's
the discussion forum I want," clicks on it, and goes to work.

Mary Utt
Sitescape.com
Maynard, MA USA


-------------------------------------------------------------------------
I've had the same problem a while ago.

I chose the 'click-version' to begin with. (because of the similarities with
the OS, and to 'prevent' annoying unpredictable dropdown menus). Then tested
it with users. --> they didn't 'get' it. They thought is was een design
bug.... or "It cost me a week to figure the thing out!"...

When I dit the 'hover-version' everybody was happy. And there were no
annoying unpredictable dropdown menus.

Frank Elbert
The Hague, The Netherlands


-------------------------------------------------------------------------
I've used this type of menu on a few sites, and always
have the menu activate on hover.

My reasoning is that users expect that in the context of
a web browser, clicking will take them to another page.
Popping out a menu when a user clicks a link would go
against their expectation of standard behaviour for a link.

I support this expectation as well; if you click on my menu
title, you'll be taken to a page that has the same function
as the dropdown menu. This is also a good fallback measure -
if a user doesn't have JavaScript, then they can still navigate ,
and don't even know that they're missing anything.

Regards,

V.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
I tested a site last summer where the menus popped up with hovering. Unlike
the two examples you mentioned, the main menu was arranged vertically so the
sub-menus popped out horizontally, like the Windows Start menu. Here are
some lessons I learned from testing:

1) Make the main menu option clickable, as both Microsoft and Eddie Bauer
do. Some users tried to click the main menu option itself, which originally
did nothing on the site I tested. (They changed the design so that a click
rather than a hover was required to bring up the menu. Although this seems
like an extra step, it alleviated the more severe problems described below.)

2) Avoid horizontal cascading menus. They are difficult for many users to
navigate, since they move the cursor diagonally to the desired option rather
than making two 90-degree movements. This can cause the menu to disappear as
soon as the mouse moves off it, and we saw this problem in testing. (The
designers changed it to make the menu persistent until the user clicks
elsewhere... I didn't test this version, but that behavior seemed to be more
in line with what users expected.) It seems to me that vertical menus would
avoid this problem, but I haven't tested any.

3) Be aware of what's under the mouse after the user clicks - on the site I
tested, unless the user had moved the mouse far enough to the right when
selecting a sub-menu, their cursor was sometimes positioned over the main
menu on the subsequent page, causing another menu to pop up. This
*completely* stumped a couple of users, whom I had to help. (Now that a
click is required to bring up the menu, this problem should no longer
occur.)

Note that the users in the study I conducted were banking customers who did
not have technical knowledge of the web. My guess is that menus like this
work fine for developers, because the developers on this project was very
surprised at how much trouble non-technical users had. (Of course, if menus
like this are used on sites intended for developers, then that will help
reinforce the developers' misconception that everyone can use these menus.
:-)

So my bottom line is that I'd be cautiously optimistic that the "vertical
hover" style of menus might work, because they seem to avoid the problems I
describe above with the "horizontal hover" style. Of course, they may have
other problems I'm not aware of.

Carolyn

Snyder Consulting
Focusing on the People side of Technology
(603) 890-2411
www.snyderconsulting.net

   ---------------------------------------------------------
   About CHI-WEB: http://www.acm.org/sigchi/web/chi-web.html
   ---------------------------------------------------------

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November 1998, Week 4
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November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
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April 1998, Week 1
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March 1998, Week 1
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February 1998, Week 1
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January 1998, Week 1
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August 1997, Week 1
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June 1997, Week 5
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June 1997, Week 1
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March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 4
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February 1997, Week 1
January 1997, Week 5

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