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CHI-WEB  March 2001, Week 2

CHI-WEB March 2001, Week 2

Subject:

use of scenarios/stories in web HCI - Summary

From:

Susanne Dickel <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Susanne Dickel <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 12 Mar 2001 17:12:42 +0000

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (417 lines)

Thanks again to everyone who replied to my above question: your input
was very helpful indeed.

Also: Apologies for the late summary (I had a bit of a stressful time).

I received 7 answers which are listed below.

The general gist: scenarios are created early on in the development
cycle and usually supported by additional user research/profiles.
They are either created by the team or by specialist roles such as
info architects or experience designers. Scenarios are seen as a
useful communication tool,  for keeping the focus on real people, for
team communication and error prediction. The limitation of scenarios:
not useful in defining scope.

Papers/Books mentioned:

http://www.software.ibm.com/developer/library/moderator-guide/requirements.html#scenario

http://www.davidbliss.com/index.asp?unique_id=232

A yet-to-be published book on scenarios is:

Usability engineering: Scenario-based development of H/C Interaction by M.
B. Rosson and J. M. Carroll

In relation to vividity: See the paper on support theory by Tversky
and Kohler in Psych Review (1994 or
'95, I think) for the theory behind this and refs to earlier work.

Book: Alan Cooper (on Personas) in: The Inmates are running the asylum.

And John Carroll  send me this paper as a response to a direct request:

Carroll J.M. (2000). Making Use: Scenarios and scenario-based design.
In: Paris, C., Ozkan, N., Howard, S. & Lu, S. (eds) Interfacing
Reality in the New Millennium. Proceedings of OzCHI 2000. (Sydney,
December 4-8). Canberra: Ergonomic Society of Australia, pp. 35-48


******************************
From: Erik Larson <[log in to unmask]>
To: Susanne Dickel <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: RE: use of scenarios/stories in web HCIFrom    Subject Received
Date: Fri, 23 Feb 2001 11:06:12 -0800

Hi Susanne,

My comments are below.  I've interviewed about 300 web teams over the past
several months about several topics including this subject, so I feel pretty
confident about the generalizations in these statements.  If you have
questions, let me know, though I'm pretty snowed under so my ability to
respond may be kinda limited ;-).

-e

How and when within the development cycle do you use scenarios?

>Teams that use scenarios usually create them in the beginning of the cycle.
Effective scenario writing tends to occur more often when combined with a
good description of the client requirements and a set of user profiles,
often fictitious people who represent core customer segments, with names,
jobs, and preferences described in a rudimentary terms.  BTW, there seems to
be a steep diminishing returns curve when it comes to user profiles and
scenarios: they should be detailed enough to get the gist, but if they are
more than a page or two they are often less useful because fewer people
read/understand them, plus more writing takes longer and seems more likely
to stray from reality.

>If done this way, the 'users' names tend to come up throughout the cycle
("Yeah, I know Mary would care how it looks, but she probably won't use it
anyway...what would Bob think about this, he's a busy guy."), and are used
in thought experiments about what to do that are generally thought to be
very useful.  They become archetypes for discussion of trade-offs.

Who is involved in generating them?

>The majority of teams do not create any sort of documented user
scenarios/profiles.  If a web team considers this activity a 'specialized
skill' (fairly common), then info architects and creative director types
(sometimes even folks like Ethnologists or User Experience Architects) tend
to lead the charge, and often create the profiles/scenarios and 'hand them
off' to the team.  If a web team considers it a collaborative effort, then
usually the entire team is involved, with a single design-minded person
facilitating.  More teams have a single person or two who create these
documents than consider it a collaborative effort.

Do scenarios facilitate user/developer communication?

>Yes, especially when based on actual user interviews/data (which implies
that the process can be as valuable as the end result).  The most useful are
developed by the team after ALL of them had had some exposure to likely
users of the web site.  They also seem to be more useful the larger the team
of folks working on the project, roughly along the lines of:
  Less than 3 on the team -- probably overkill
  3 to 6 on the team -- good for complex projects, particularly if they
address
                        a diverse customer bases
  More than 6 on the team -- almost as essential as site maps & screen decks
                             as far as teamcommunication is concerned.

How do scenarios fit in with other HCI methods and with structured
forms of analysis?

>???  Sometimes are the basis for usability test plans, but are usually done
so early in the process and tend to be more generalized, so that they are
underlay everything but don't map that directly.

What are the limitations of scenarios?

>See above.  Also, it's very expensive and time consuming to do lots of
up-front customer interviewing, etc., especially if you want to involve the
whole team (which requires even more work, since often they won't have much
experience or inclination for such things, and so the process requires a lot
more up-front guidance and management).  Also, if a team spends a lot of
time and money on it, then they tend to create larger/longer/less useful
documents.  But the excercise itself is appears to be valuable even if it
isn't based on lots of direct user contact, since most times it seems as if
between the client and the folks on the team there is a fair bit of tacit
knowledge about the types of people likely to use/visit a site...this
process just forces them to get synthesize their thoughts and get them down
in a useful form for communicating them to a group.

***********************************************

X-Sender: [log in to unmask]
Date: Fri, 23 Feb 2001 14:51:23 -0600
To: Susanne Dickel <[log in to unmask]>
From: Stefan Smagula <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: Re: use of scenarios/stories in web HCI

Susanne,

Below are my responses to your questions. I've written scenarios for
four projects when I was an information architect with Scient, and
I'm about to start writing scenarios for a reconceive of a major
ISP's site, and would love to see whatever resources/replies you send.

Thanks,

Stefan


>How and when within the development cycle do you use scenarios?
>Early on, after some user research, market research, competitive
>analysis, but before functional specs, use cases, etc.



>Who is involved in generating them? cross-discipline team, the devs
>tended to write "usage scenarios" that were "do-able" and would
>translate into use cases, and the user experience dsigners tended to
>write imaginative blue sky scenarios.



>Do scenarios facilitate user/developer communication? Yes, they
>communicate effectively "what the system will do" but not good at
>defining scope of the initial phase. If the client thinks that the
>story is real, and not a story, then you're in trouble. Also good
>first step before creating some storyboards.



>How do scenarios fit in with other HCI methods and with structure
>forms of analysis? Not sure what structured form of analysis is...
>and not sure which methods you mean.
>What are the limitations of scenarios? Not suitable for defining scope.

********************************************************************

X-Sender: [log in to unmask]
Date: Mon, 26 Feb 2001 08:34:59 -0500
To: Susanne Dickel <[log in to unmask]>
From: David Carter-Tod <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: RE: use of scenarios/stories in web HCI

Susanne,

http://www.software.ibm.com/developer/library/moderator-guide/requirements.html#scenario

Might be of use,  but it's not exactly research.  I think Jack
Carroll's research group is continuing in this direction at Virginia
Tech (http://www.hci.vt.edu).

While I have your attention, do you have more references and
citations on the use of stories in scientific research (more
generally)?  I'm interested in applying scenarios to other design
research and would like to get a deeper background in the area.

Cordially,

David Carter-Tod
(the et al. in Erskine et al.)
--
David Carter-Tod
<[log in to unmask]>

Instructional Technologist/Distance Education Contact
Wytheville Community College, 1000 E. Main St.,
Wytheville, VA 24382
(wk) 540-223-4784
http://www.wc.cc.va.us/

Online certificate in web site design:
http://www.wc.cc.va.us/websiteDesign

*********************************************************************

X-Apparently-From: <[log in to unmask]>
From: "david bliss" <[log in to unmask]>
To: "Susanne Dickel" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: RE: use of scenarios/stories in web HCI
Date: Mon, 26 Feb 2001 09:13:54 -0800
X-Priority: 3 (Normal)
Importance: Normal

Susanne,

Below are my initial reactions to your questions. If you have any further
questions about how I use scenarios to enable our design, please let me
know.

For us, scenarios are developed very early in the design process. They are
preceded by research and persona writing. We try to complete the scenarios
writing process before determining the scope of the product and before
prototyping anything.

A designer (usually the project's lead) is responsible for collecting input
from an interdisciplinary team, writing the scenarios and reviewing them
with the team.

Scenarios give designers and developers a tool to understand the user and
how the product will integrate into their lives.

Narrative scenarios are very powerful in the early stages of design. The
strength is the ease with which they can be written and modified. Early on,
their lack of specificity can be a real attribute to innovation; however, as
the design process continues, this becomes a limitation.

Prototypes must be made from the scenarios in order to solidify the thinking
and present the ideas with the users. We have found that scenarios are to
intangible for people outside the design process to respond to.



You may also want to read the following on my website
http://www.davidbliss.com/index.asp?unique_id=232


David Bliss
www.davidbliss.com

************************************************************************

-----Original Message-----
From: Susanne Dickel [mailto:[log in to unmask]]
Sent: Monday, February 26, 2001 10:15 AM
To: david bliss
Subject: RE: use of scenarios/stories in web HCI

David,

One question, you say:

>   >We have found that scenarios are to
intangible for people outside the design process to respond to.

Could you elaborate that point a bit? The reason I'm asking is that
I'm currently trying to make exactly the opposite point in my paper.
I am arguing that storytelling is an activity we all engage in in our
daily lives and are therefore familiar with. On this basis, I'm
trying to make a case for scenarios as a facilitating format in
user-developer communication. This, of course, implies that users are
involved in the generation of scenarios and are as such 'inside'  the
design process.

However, I have as yet no personal experience in applying this
technique and therefore my reasoning is completely based on the
research I've done so far in combination with trying to make some
intelligent deductions.

Am I wrong?

*************************************************************

X-Apparently-From: <[log in to unmask]>
From: "david bliss" <[log in to unmask]>
To: "Susanne Dickel" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: RE: use of scenarios/stories in web HCI
Date: Mon, 26 Feb 2001 11:54:40 -0800
X-Priority: 3 (Normal)
Importance: Normal

I have found that with scenarios, 2 people are seldom on the exact same
page. No matter how well they are written, people widely interpret
scenarios.

Furthermore, it is very difficult for most people to imagine a unique
product when reading a scenario. People always read scenarios and attempt to
correlate them to things already in their life (all directories are seen
like yahoo's directories). We have found that because of this, it is very
hard to test innovative ideas without a tangible prototype to illustrate the
ideas more specifically.

Without prototypes, users are very quick to listen to a scenario and say
that it sounds good, but does not apply to them (because they can not
imagine using it). We have found that putting them into the scenario (by
giving them a prototype) is much more valuable for testing.

Don't get me wrong, scenarios are very very good and important (and we have
come to rely on them heavily); however, you can't trust people's reactions
too much and you need to move past them quickly.

To your point of the user being involved in the scenario creation... I think
this is potentially a good strategy for scenario development. In our work to
date it is unrealistic to expect this degree of involvement. What's more, if
a user is an insider, they could not validate the scenarios. If they are
involved enough to understand the scenarios in the same ay you do, then they
are too close to the issues and the logic behind the solution to validate
the design as a common user.

I hope this helps clarify my earlier statement. I would like to see your
paper when it is finished. I am constantly adapting my design process and am
eager to learn more.

David

************************************************************************

X-Sybari-Space: 00000000 00000000 00000000
From: "Martin, Chris C. (PHPPO)" <[log in to unmask]>
To: 'Susanne Dickel' <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: RE: use of scenarios/stories in web HCI
Date: Fri, 23 Feb 2001 16:20:06 -0500

Susanne,
Among other things, I think scenarios are useful in predicting errors that
users may make, since we know that users will definitely make some errors.
The scenario should demonstrate how the system helps users recover from such
errors.

During my graduate coursework in HCI, I also learned that scenarios are
useful because they:
-focus on the synthesis of the system/website within in the user's
environment
-put the developers in another person's shoes
-are engaging inasmuch as they focus on user needs.

A yet-to-be published book on scenarios is:

Usability engineering: Scenario-based development of H/C Interaction by M.
B. Rosson and J. M. Carroll

I don't know what the estimated publication date for this is, but you might
be able to obtain a manuscript for it.

-Chris Martin

***********************************

Date:         Sat, 3 Mar 2001 15:44:58 -0500
From: Paul Whitmore <[log in to unmask]>
Subject:      Re: use of scenarios/stories in web HCI
To: [log in to unmask]
cc: Paul Whitmore <[log in to unmask]>

Susan,
  I heard Alan Cooper talking about his method, of personas, just last
week, and there is a pretty clear connection between that method and
scenarios.
  What have you learned since you posted to WEB-CHI?

[snip]

I have a feeling that one powerful contribution of
scenarios/personas is due to a force that the psychologist Amos Tversky
labeled 'vividity.'  He didn't come up with the label, ofc, but he did
observe that people tend to have much more definition in their
recollections, associations, and inferences when presented with a vivid,
rather than abstract, description.  It wd be a little difficult for me to
track down a published reference on this effect, but there's a chance that
todd davies will know a better source than i can provide

all the best, and when you're done writing, i'd be glad to begin
reading...
  paul whitmore
  http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~wit

************************************************

X-Authentication-Warning: Turing.Stanford.EDU: tdavies owned process doing -bs
Date: Wed, 7 Mar 2001 20:51:52 -0800 (PST)
From: Todd Davies <[log in to unmask]>
X-Sender: [log in to unmask]
To: Paul Whitmore <[log in to unmask]>
cc: Susanne Dickel <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: Re: use of scenarios/stories in web HCI

Paul and Susanne,

I don't remember Amos using the term `vividity'.  There is a lot of
research in psych on "vividness" - you can type that into psycinfo and
you'll get a bunch of papers, showing that it helps memory, makes
scenarios more plausible, and gets overweighed in comparison to
statistical evidence (the "one death is a tragedy, 100 deaths is a
statistic" effect). Amos and others have done work showing that vivid
descriptions elicit higher likelihood estimates than abstract ones.  See
the paper on support theory by Tversky and Kohler in Psych Review (1994 or
'95, I think) for the theory behind this and refs to earlier work.

Todd

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August 2001, Week 1
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