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CHI-WEB  May 2001, Week 4

CHI-WEB May 2001, Week 4

Subject:

Summary: Help in Web Applications

From:

Gerard Torenvliet <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Gerard Torenvliet <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 25 May 2001 12:53:08 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (393 lines)

All,

As promised, here is a summary of the responses I had to my question on how
to implement help in a web application.

First, my original question:

> I am currently working on the design of a web application, and am
> looking for some help with best practices on including help in such an
> application. Some of the documentation folks I work with would like to
> have three help links on each page -- one linking to the table of
> contents, another to context-specific help, and another to PDF
> documentation files.  I am arguing
> that in general there should be one help link on each page, in a
> consistent
> spot, that links to context specific help, but that includes easy
> navigation
> back to the table of contents, where PDF files can also be found.  In
> addition, for pages including a number of difficult terms of concepts,
> several links to different help pages can be inserted.
>
> Adding help to a web app is all new to me.  Any comments on the best
> strategy to use would be appreciated.  Post to me, and I will
> summarize to the list.

Now, in terms of responses, there was close to a consensus view that there
should be a single link to help (as opposed to two or more) in the
application, that the link should be to help on the immediate context, and
that the help application should include robust navigation so that users can
make it over to other elements.

Thanks to Nancy Shea, Gary Perlman, Rachel, Susan Ward, Mary Deaton, Matt
Prather, Peter Sullivan, Steve Fouts, Hendrik Manhaeve, Michael Hinnant, and
Jane van't Assel.  This long post evidences how helpful you all were!

Now on to the specific posts:

From Nancy Shea:
---
Gerard,

It is not surprising that the documentation people want to showcase their
work on the web app page, but in adding three links they are violating the
most basic usability principle - that the web app should be geared toward
the needs of the user and not toward the aims of the developer. How is the
user going to know if they want PDF files, the table of contents or even
what "context-specific help" is??  Three links seems to me to add an
unnecessary layer of decisionmaking to a user who in pursuing help is
probably already frustrated. Your strategy is much stronger, as it suggests
an easy path to the user.

Nancy
---

From Gary Perlman:
---
In FirstSearch, (demo at: http://www.oclc.org/cgi-oclc/fstrial.scr.cgi),
we began with a single context-sensitive button which used the user's search
experience level (basic, advanced, expert), current database, and options
available to an account.  It was not used much. When we added little help
buttons on specific screen elements (search/limit options, current
database), help use increased, with those little buttons accounting for half
the use of help. We use a popup help window so that users can maintain
context while they read, and links to a table of contents, search, etc. are
at the top of all help screens.

So, FirstSearch follows what you are arguing for closely,
but I would emphasize: (1) users are more likely to
use help buttons next to specific elements they are considering, and (2)
users don't use help much at all, and (3) add a topic search in help with
lots of synonyms, even though users will assume that a search of help topics
will find whatever they are thinking of (e.g., Backstreet Boys).
---

From Rachel of the absent-surname:
---
I would actually advocate that your context sensitive help link appears near
the potentially problematic feature / functionality.  And that a consistent
(i.e. global navigation) link takes the user to the help index.  The context
sensitive help should also have links to the help index to assist the user
in finding further help information.

You might prefer to use an icon to differentiate the context sensitive help
within the help-needing page from the global help index link.  This would
also save space on complicated pages.

I'm a believer in using pop-ups for help since this is a metaphor that most
people recognise from desk-top applications.

Hope this helps ;) <sorry - i couldn't resist that one>
---

From Susan Ward:
---
Your instincts are correct. Go for a single Help link on the page. If you
have three links, then a user won't know which one to click on without lots
of labeling. Too confusing. Keep it simple.

Ideally, much of your help should be contextual. So when a user clicks the
Help link on a page, they go to an article about that topic. For example,
info on how to fill out that form. However, that article should live in a
Help area, from which the user can easily navigate to all the other help
topics, listed by category.

Think of your Help area as being a product in itself... self contained, with

its own navigation, branding, etc. It should be easy to navigate, provide
cross-linking of content (lists of related topics, links within articles
that
offer further definitions of terms, etc.) There are various tools that you
can use to build a good Web based Help... such as RoboHelp's WebHelp,
Dreamweaver: (see: <A HREF="http://www.htmlbasedhelp.com/index.html">
Resources and Training for HTML-Based Help, WebHelp, JavaHelp, and HTML Help
</A>).

For those pages in your site that don't need a contextual article... because

they are top level pages or the Home page or whatever... then have the Help
link take the user to the default topic in your Help area. For example...
Getting Started, or Welcome to blah blah... Or it can take the user to a
major category heading within the Help area. Whatever makes the most sense
for the situation.

Writing Help Articles...
Write articles so that they are brief and to the point. Avoid lots of
introductory text and paragraphs.And don't use the Help area as a place for
"marketing" the benefits of the features you are talking about. Provide
instructions in steps 1, 2, 3 format. Add extra info in a "Notes" section,
displayed below the steps, so the steps don't become encumbered by too much
information. People go to help to get quick instructions... not to read a
novel. :)  Provide instructions for a single way to perform the task, even
if
there other other short cuts, etc. If you must include a short cut, that
sort
of info goes in Notes.

Also, be sure to create a style guide for wording and other conventions.
Keep
wording and style consistent. Don't use terms that are techy... use terms
that users will understand. I highly recommend the "Microsoft Manual of
Style
for Technical Publications."  There are other useful guides too. You can
even
create your own style guide. Just be consistent. Also, avoid using extra
words, such as "Click on the OK button." Better to say, "Click OK." The
bolding becomes a recognizable convention of a button label.

See also: http://www.useit.com/papers/webwriting/

I don't really see a need for providing PDF files. For one, not all users
have Adobe Acrobat, so they'd have to download it. And secondly, they should

be able to print your articles right from your Help area.

And last but not least... the ideal web site doesn't need a Help area,
because it is so easy to use! :)  So if you find you need really detailed,
huge Help area, then I'd take a look at ways to make the UI easier and more
intuitive.
---

From Mary Deaton:
---
A subject near and dear to my heart, since doing online Help is where I got
started. There really are no standards that have yet evolved, or even a
recognition that Web apps need Help. The FAQ seems to have largely replaced
the traditional form of Help in nearly all Web sites, much to the user's
detriment IMHO.

There was an effort to develop some standards for Help, or user assistance,
on the Web which died of intertia.  However, this topic is big in the help
authoring community and you probably can find people to talk to about
specifics at http://www.winwriters.com/cgi-bin/Ultimate.cgi?action=intro

I would also be happy to talk in a private email about my experience,
preferences, and so on.
---

From Matt Prather:
---
As it happens, this is one of my particular specialties, so perhaps I can
offer a little bit of help.

We went through **EXACTLY** this entire debate, and it became quite a
fracas, during the Portico and myTalk projects at General Magic. (Rather
than explaining what each of these is/was, the best way would be to go to my
Web site, www.bulcmale.com/enterprise/, and check the links for the Portico
Online User's Guide and the myTalk Online Help System.)

Especially in the case of myTalk, the Marketing folks wanted Help links
everywhere and were not terribly receptive to my pleas that this would only
confuse users, who made no distinction between various-level Help links. The
one argument that did seem to register was when I pointed out that, in study
after study after study after study, the **only** time users ever went to a
Help system was when they were stuck and needed specific Help to a specific
problem, RIGHT NOW! So that argued in favour of context-sensitive Help
links.

The problem, though, was that the procedural step that users *were* in was
often not the one they *wanted* or *needed* to be in to accomplish their
goals. (Yes, this was a result of poor design of the original interface, but
that's another story....) Consequently, it really wouldn't work to offer
only context-sensitive topics, because it would provide too-granular
information, out of context, about the wrong procedure. So that argued for
system-level Help links.

Finally, all of this created quite a debate over what delivery format to
use. We had to have a Web-based Help system that was browser-independent and
platform-independent across multiple versions of operating systems (Windows
& Mac), Netscape, and Internet Explorer. That created a *severe* constraint
in meeting the other criteria. As your doc people can no doubt tell you,
none of the so-called universally compatible Help solutions (RoboHelp,
ForeHelp, etc.) really are universally compatible, because they use Java to
do a lot of the TOC, Index, and so on. Many of our members had connections
so slow that the machine would time out before the Help system ever loaded,
creating hundreds of calls to Customer Support. This also creates huge
"versionitis" problems, in that users had to be running the absolute latest
versions of all browser and OS software.

The eventual solution we came up with was to deliver simple HTML-based Help.
Note that I did not say "HTML Help", which is proprietary to Microsoft and
will run only under Internet Explorer (and at that, only runs reliably on
Windows). Instead, the Help system was essentially just a mini-Web of HTML
pages, with a Contents frame, a Details frame, and a Search mechanism. What
this allowed us to do was to break up the Help system into subject areas
according to users' task domains. A given Help link from the Web app
(myTalk) would then go to the home page **FOR A GIVEN TASK DOMAIN**, so
users could get around the "what I'm doing is not what I need to be doing"
problem of context-sensitive Help. Because each section of the Help system
contained the identical Contents frame (only the page loaded into the
Details frame changed), they still had access to the entire Help system from
any of the domain-sensitive links they chose. For example, if a user chose
the Help link from the myTalk mailbox because s/he wanted to know how to
send email, this would open the home page of the "Messages" section of Help,
but the TOC would still contain links for the Login section, the
Troubleshooting section, and so on. The system as a whole is available from
http://www.bulcmale.com/enterprise and doesn't require downloading because
it's strictly vanilla HTML. It was an incredible amount of work initially
(to create this mini-Web), but more than paid off in increased user
satisfaction and success, and subsequent maintenance of updated Help pages
was a breeze!

Finally, the Help system contained links to sources for more information,
including contacting Customer Support --- I imagine you could certainly put
a download link to a PDF file here. For the larger Portico project, we
provided Help/documentation **only**  as a downloadable PDF file, because
research indicated that the telephony interface to Portico was used much
more than the Web interface, so users needed something they could print and
have on hand when away from the computer. With myTalk, on the other hand,
the ratio was reversed: there was much more use of the Web interface than
the telephony interface.

Hope you can use this deluge of information. Feel free to contact me with
any other questions you might have in this area.
---

From Peter Sullivan:
---
I designed the "change pages" for Excite's Personalized from using a web
application framework (Personalize a page & see the color link).  We used 1
"Help" link in the upper right corner to launch a daughter window. You could
also put a "?" circular icon/button to the left of help (This icon-link
combo is becoming a good way to do i18n for the web). We had simple help
pages, but the thought was to develop those into a full blown help
application with index & search.

I don't think I would use pdfs either.  You should probably have your pdf &
docs filtered into HTML.
---

From Steve Fouts:
---
Three links to help on a single page? Sounds like a waste of space to me.
Nope, sorry. I would recommend one single link (or button) to the Help page
that deals most specifically with the page they are requesting help from
(context sensitive help) and obvious links to the TOC, Index, and Search on
every help page. As long as the PDF is just a convenient way to print the
whole file, the people who like that sort of thing will find it if it
occupies a prominent place in the TOC and index.

I'm a technical writer by trade, and have found that even in places where
you have the luxury of a Help menu (Windows apps) giving people too many
options is self defeating. People don't like having to go to help, and if
they have to think about which of the multiple help options they should
pick, they frequently just choose, "None of the above."

> I am arguing
> that in general there should be one help link on each page, in a
> consistent spot, that links to context specific help, but that
> includes easy navigation back to the table of contents, where PDF
> files can also be found.  In addition, for pages including a number of
> difficult terms of concepts, several links to different help pages can
> be inserted.

I agree. One help link. Consistent placement. Consistent navigation within
the help itself. I assume the PDFs are simply giving the users the ability
to print the entire help file so they can use it as reference.

If the definitions are key to understanding what is going on on the page,
I'd suggest having the definitions in the context sensitive help. As well as
procedural stuff for the most commonand/or most difficult tasks.

> Adding help to a web app is all new to me.  Any comments on the best
> strategy to use would be appreciated.  Post to me, and I will
> summarize to the list.

For a large class of users, Help is a security blanket that is comforting to
have around, but will never actually be used. Which is not to say that it is
valueless, or that it can be poorly written. Far from it. Poorly written
help degrades people's opinion of the product and completely destroys the
value of the security blanket.
---

From Rick Manhaeve:
---
Mostly help in webapplications is not responding to shortcuts (like F1). I
still don't know how to trap the F1 from the browser and move it over to the
help of the application. After all the user is working with an application
and the browser is no longer in their focus. The browser is only used as a
medium to make the application available and has no merits of its own. If
you get any answers about trapping the F1 I would love to hear about them.
---

From Mike Hinnant:
---
I would certainly advocate a context-sensitive help link on the pages.
Having designed and tested several web apps, I've found that when a user
gets frustrated enough to go to the help link, they want help with the
specific page and task they are working on, not the TOC. Help is almost a
misnomer, as the user wants a quick tip or pointer to get on with the task
at hand.

Your proposal of having the contextual help opened, with access to the TOC
(we always use a frameset to have both the TOC and help content display at
the same time) and the PDFs seems appropriate (given my lack of specific
knowledge of your app, users and tasks...). Links to PDF should be clearly
identified, as it requires the launching of, and possible installation of, a
separate application.

As far as concepts and terms that need to be defined, I've always put a
glossary in the help files and link the terms (or a defn. icon/? link next
to them) to those definitions. That way the user can see the definition and
the context where the terms is used at the same time (assuming you are
popping the help in a separate window) as well as access the rest of the
glossary.
---

From Jane Van't Assel
---
The best approach from my many years in the technical writing arena is to
provide a Help file with a TOC in the left frame and the actual help content
in the right frame. The TOC is always present to the user. A Welcome Page
serves as the default when a user first enters Help. On the Welcome page of
the Help, provide links to specific information such as your PDF documents.

When you say "context-specific", do you mean context-sensitive Help. If
you're referring to context-sensitive Help--Help that is related to a
specific screen. For example a user is in the Create New User screen and
needs Help related to this area. When the user clicks Help, the topic
pertaining to the Create New User screen will populate. Context- sensitivity
can be handled by placing variables in the HTML or JSP of the Web
application. The JavaScript in the Help file would also include that
variable, so when the user is in Create New User, Help specific to that
topic would populate.
---

If you've made it this far, send a self-addressed, stamped envelope to the
mailing address below and I'll send you a chocolate chip cookie... :-)

Regards,
-Gerard

--------------------------------------------------
"...you can't just toss [usability] in at the last
minute, any more than you could a good
database schema."  -IEEE Software, Jan/Feb 2001
--------------------------------------------------
Gerard Torenvliet
Watchfire User Interaction Design (http://ui)
[log in to unmask]

1 Hines Rd., Ottawa, ON, K2K 3C7
Ph: 613.599.3888 x 4024
Fx: 613.599.4661

www.watchfire.com
--------------------------------------------------

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