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CHI-WEB  August 2001, Week 3

CHI-WEB August 2001, Week 3

Subject:

SUMMARY: keyboard shortcuts

From:

Isabelle Villevieille <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Fri, 17 Aug 2001 16:31:58 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (298 lines)

Hi everyone,

Thanks to all of you who helped me about the way to manage with keyboard
shortcuts.
You will find below
1) my original request,
2) the answers I received.

As your english is better than mine ;-), I don't take the risk of
reformulating your opinions and ideas.

Sorry for being so late in sending back all this useful info,

Isabelle

----------------------------------------------------------------------

1) Original request:

I am looking for information about keyboard shortcuts.

The context: we replace several cryptic entries applications by a single
one. This new one will have a "classical" graphical user interface (radio
buttons, tabs, scroll bar, drop down lists, potentially huge scrolling
lists, and so on...)

In the current environments, 50% of the users use the keyboard to enter
data - they never use the mouse.

It is required that the new interface allows the users to manage the
application using *only* the keyboard...

I would like to avoid that for reaching a given element, the users will
have to click 800 times on the "tab" key ;-)

So, if you have any kind of idea, viewpoint, or even links about this
subject, I would be very very glad to do a summary of all your answers,
that I will send back to the list.

Thanks,

Isabelle



2) Received answers:

From: Chauncey Wilson [log in to unmask]

1.  Consider using the OS keyboard "standards" like Control+S for saving
unless you have an overriding reason to deviate (which you might have  if
you
wanted the really high frequency functions to be single keys (F8) rather
than
multiple keys (Control+S).

2.  Be careful about dangerous 1-off errors.  Check to see if you have any
high frequency keyboard "safe" actions that are next to low frequency
"dangerous actions (a real example that I saw many years ago when a product
was moved from character cell to a GUI -- Ctrl+S for save Table and Ctrl+D
for Delete Database.  S and D and next to each other and we had some
customers actually delete their database because of this one-off error).
My
advice for action shortcuts (as opposed to simple navigation) is to make a
table of all dangerous actions and see if you have any high-frequency safe
actions that use adjacent keys.

3.  Do you have any sense of transition frequencies between fields on a
page.
If you know that 80% of the time  the user will fill in the first 3 fields
and jump to field 10, then consider making the shortcut for field 10 as
memorable as possible.  The problem with keyboard accelerators for
navigation
is that you quickly run out of keys that are truly mnemonic.

4.  Use controls that are keyboard controls.  There is some controversy
about
the usability of combo boxes, but if you have experienced users who 95% of
the time will know what to type in a combo box may be the preferred
control.
You might also consider text fields check boxes if heavy typing is really a
concern (the user can type "Y" for Yes and "N" for No.  This type of design
looks mainframey, but for heavy keyboard use might really be appreciated by
your users. Consider a text field above list boxes that will allow
"selection" through typing.  Most of all, don't throw in mouse-only
controls
in places where it would throw the rythym of the user off consideraly. If
you
watch folks who do data-entry, they have a rhythm.

6.  Make sure that everything in the toolbar has a keyboard access method.
Put the shortcuts for the toolbar in the tooltip.

7.  If you have a multi-line text field in a form or dialog, don't make the
mistake of using the Enter key for a default action. When the cursor is in
the multi-line field, the strong user expectation is that pressing Enter
will
create a new line.

8.  If your forms have any kind of panels or tabs.  Make sure that you have
easy navigation between panels or tabs.  Microsoft allows Ctrl+Tab for
moving
among tabs in a standard property sheet for example, but some other
controls
or home grown systems may not. There are some controls that fight to keep
the
cursor (some editable grids for example) and you may have to write a lot of
special code to get the cursor out of the field once you tab into it.

9.  Make an "Unplug the mouse" test part of the unit and QA testing.

From: Finnegan Keith [log in to unmask]

The only thing I would add is try to
make the multiple key shortcuts as one-handed as possible and easy to
reach.
For example, avoid Ctrl + plus number keys.

From: William Hudson" [log in to unmask]

The best general advice I can offer is to find examples of popular
applications that have similar problems to yours and see how their
designers have solved them. For example, in selecting an item from a
long list, auto-completion has become popular in the last couple of
years, but this used to be very uncommon only 5 years ago.

You should also be aware that in the early days of graphical
environments like Windows, it was considered essential that all
operations be possible without a mouse. This means that if you look hard
enough, you will discover that keyboard shortcuts exist as a standard
part of the style guide for your platform of choice - certainly for
Windows and I think for the Mac.

Have a look at Windows and Mac style guides for examples and ideas:

_Microsoft Windows User Experience_
Amazon.com -
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/asin/0735605661/syntagmltd02
Amazon.co.uk -
http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/asin/0735605661/syntagmltd

_Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines_
Amazon.com -
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/asin/0201622165/syntagmltd02
Amazon.co.uk -
http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/asin/0201622165/syntagmltd

(The Mac book appears to be the most recent, even though it was
published in 1993. There is a supplement for OS 8 on the Apple web site:
http://developer.apple.com/techpubs/mac/HIGuidelines/HIGuidelines-2.html
.)


From: Dick MILLER [log in to unmask]

o Wilbert. O. Galitz, in _The Essential Guide to User Interface Design_
(ISBN
0-471-15755-4), gives tips on Keyboard Equivalents:

"o Each menu item should be assigned a keyboard equivalent mnemonic to
facilitate keyboard selection.

o The mnemonic should be the first character of the menu item's
description.
     o If duplication exists in the first characters, for duplicate items
use another character in the item description
     o Preferably choose the first succeeding consonant.

o Designate the mnemonic character by underlining it."

He also gives tips on what he calls "Keyboard Accelerators":

"o For frequently used items, provide a keyboard accelerator to facilitate
keyboard selection.

o The accelerator may be one funtion key or a combination of keys.
     o Function key shortcuts are easier to learn then modifier plus
letter shortcuts.

o Pressing no more than two keys simultaneously is preferred.

o Use a plus sign (+) to indicate that two or more keys must be pressed at
the same time.

o Accelerators should have some associative value to the item.

o Identify the keys by their actual keytop engraving.

o If keyboard terminology differences exist, use:
     o The most common keyboard terminology.
     o Terminology contained on the newest PCs.

o Separate the accelerator from the item description by three spaces.

o Right-align the key descriptions.

o Do not use accelerators for:
     o Menu items that have cascaded menus.
     o Pop-up menus."

From: Chauncey Wilson [log in to unmask]

> o Do not use accelerators for:
>         o Menu items that have cascaded menus.
>

The rule about not putting accelerators in pop-up menus was in one of the
versions of the Windows Style Guide, but there is no real strong reason to
keep accelerators out of the pop-up menus.  The accelerators in the menu
might add a little clutter but they also provide a way to learn keys for
common functions (pop-ups should generally have only high-frequency
functions).

From: John Sorflaten <[log in to unmask]

One technique we've found useful for accelerating access to notebook tabs
or
buttons is to use F-keys on the tab or button following the label.

If F-keys are already 'consumed' then consider using numbers, e.g.,
underscore 1 = ctrl 1, etc.

The number scheme solves the problem of forcing users to look carefully at
the word on a tab, for example, then locating the underscored character.
This is work.

Using a number scheme allows the user to apply a learned rule to all tabs.
Notebook tabs work best for this because tabs have a solid visual context.
One could apply this technique to buttons if they have a consistent
placement, look, and usage pattern.

Reserve this methodology for 'production applications'--in which users
interact frequently.  Infrequent usage implies lack of familiarity with the
conventions, and thus may raise more questions than merited by the increase
in productivity.

From: Colleen Dancer [log in to unmask]

Don't consider using standard keyboard shortcuts, use them unless you have
an incredibly good reason not to. If users use any other standard
applications then messing with the shortcuts is very frustrating to them.
Even though there might be a more intuitive set, it isn't more intuitive to
a user if they now have to learn multiple lots. Particularly don't mess
with
save, cut, copy, paste and undo, which in my experience are the most
wellknown. If you have a find option, then stick with Ctrl F (you get the
idea).


From: laplante [log in to unmask]
The tab key is really a poor tool for moving between form
elements because the user can't readily anticipate which control will be
next.  I think it would help a great deal if they could rely on the arrow
keys or a combination of arrow and  a meta key to move between form
elements.  I have never seen this done but it is not rocket science for a
developer.


From: Jack Zaientz [log in to unmask]

As someone who has designed a number of data entry applications, let me
point out a couple of things..

1) switching input devices (keyboard to mouse and back) takes time

2) the number of times a user needs to switch devices in a given form
magnifies that time

3) the number of times a user plans on filling out that form magnifies
that time yet again.

So, if your entry application is something that a user will fill out
everyonce in a while and only fill out once, say, for example, a
departmental supplies order form where a employee orders pencils once a
month, then the time costs aren't too big a deal.  If, on the other
hand, your user is a data entry clerk who's sole job is to enter take
data from a customer on the telephone, or from a paper form, and enter
it into the system and to do it 500 times a day. That's a much bigger
deal.  Not only do you not want to ask such employees to switch input
devices unless really needed, you want to make the order of entry on the
screen match the paper form/verbal script as closely as possible.

From:  Howard Tamler [log in to unmask]

If you're willing to move beyond current GUI conventions, you might get
some
good navigational insight from Jef Raskin's book, "The Humane Interface,"
especially chapters 5 & 6, where he describes the LEAP system for cursor
positioning.  I don't have the patience to spell out Raskin's ideas here,
but
they seem very promising.
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