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CHI-WEB  June 2002, Week 2

CHI-WEB June 2002, Week 2

Subject:

Final Summary: Usability Issues

From:

Jamie Gerig <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Jamie Gerig <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 8 Jun 2002 14:40:24 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (739 lines)

Here is the complete summary including responses posted on CHI Web.



Thanks to everybody for some useful insights and references.





------------------------------------------------

I have a excellent experience to talk about but sadly not the PS or about

sports games.



I just love the Command and Conquer interface.  The dialogs/windows scroll

open in a way which is neither time wasting nor OTT.  The point and click

interface when it comes to deploying soldiers, vehicles and structures is

also very neat; a single click selects, a double click activates.  Whether

you are using an MPV or a construction unit, a dbl-click will activate the

default behaviour of that item.

I did find that having dialogs which ignore the obvious "enter means Ok or

yes" and "esc means cancel or no" to be slightly frustrating as was the

scroll bar on the right containing the options that can be constructed -

sometimes it cannot be scrolled fast enough to respond to advances on the

battlefield.



Lovely game.



Antoine Borg



------------------------------------------------

 I wrote an academic but unpublished paper in French on this particular
subject last summer. Click on the "draft" hyperlink on

the URL below, and have a deep look. It has

unfortunately not been revised since, and I know that

the qualitative methodology I used is not the right

one, even the title is not correct. But I'm sure

you'll find some good resources and content. If not,

learn French with a 24-hours learning book!!! But you

were right when saying there is no academic literature

on this subject. I think the main problem I had to

face was that User Interface interaction in virtual

environment tends to be more and more natural-kind of

interaction. To me, perfect usability lies on

nearly-real virtual environment interaction! So when

you want to adapt usability criteria to games

interfaces, you often do it on 3D-kind of

environments, but on a flat monitor/TV 2D screen.

That's why I had many problems in trying to adapt

usability to games interfaces. So, I let it down to

concentrate on the game design process. Now I work on

an ergonomics/organizational perspective of

collaborative work in game design. Far more

feasible... with respect to methodology!



http://tecfa.unige.ch/~yves/projects.html



Yves Grassioulet



------------------------------------------------


> The number one usability issue comes from poor controls.

> This is often overlooked on menuing systems.  Having an

> intuitive menu that is easy to use & understand can make a

> poor game seem better than it is.

>

> Case in point - NFL Fever 2002 for the XBox console system.

> This game does not follow football rules, has sprite 'run

> overs' and a great deal of other little details that should

> have been fixed.  But because it is so easy to use the

> system, someone can pick up a controller and quickly play.

> It also offers more advanced options for the controls for

> those willing to learn.  The usability of the game has made

> it be a contender against Madden football games (Which have

> 10+ years as the dominant leader of football games)

>

Hope this helps!



------------------------------------------------

 Great topic.  Computer game design seems to be an under-explored topic

in traditional HCI circles.  I attribute this largely to the relative

absence of credentialed HCI professionals working in the game industry.



I have only come across one formal attempt at examining game design from

an HCI perspective: At CHI '98, I attended an excellent session by Chuck

Clanton, then of Aratar, on "HCI Lessons from Games."



Unfortunately, his presentation doesn't seem to be archived on the CHI

site - which is a shame, because I thought it was one of the better

sessions at CHI that year.



A few key points from Clanton's talk that have stuck with me:



Video game designers have gradually evolved a fairly standard set of

design conventions - for instance, gestural interface cues like arrow

keys, standardization of certain action commands (like the space key),

and so forth.  In some genres, like 3D "shoot-em-up" games, conventions

have evolved so tightly that game designers almost never dare to stray

from them.  As a result, users are able to form reliable expectations

about how new games will work.  Thus the video game industry has

managed, quite organically, to attain levels of learnability and user

performance that would be the envy of most commercial software

application designers.



Video game designers have also managed to develop a remarkably symbiotic

relationship with their users.  Rabidly loyal gaming communities provide

an incredibly strong user feedback loop.  And game designers tend to

collaborate closely with their users in identifying new features and

introducing new design concepts.  And yet "formal" usability testing is

almost unheard of in the game industry.



Perhaps the most interesting aspect of video game design has been the

entirely organic, undocumented, un-theorized - i.e., "un-HCI" - nature

of its evolution.  The sub-text of Clanton's talk was, I believe, that

video game design serves as an object lesson that engineering usability

doesn't necessary require the presence of usability engineers.  Which of

course begs the question: would HCI professionals make video games more

usable, or less?  Personally, I can't help but suspect the latter...



regards,

alex



------------------------------------------------


> Computer game design seems to be an under-explored topic

> in traditional HCI circles.



They're also a good illustration the difference between usability and

interaction design.



As mentioned, a number of "standard" UI conventions have evolved, making

them quite usable -- at least by those who've mastered them.



But the interactions of the game itself are intentionally designed to be

difficult -- since overcoming challenges is the heart of most games.



> Video game designers have also managed to develop a remarkably

> symbiotic relationship with their users.  Rabidly loyal gaming

> communities provide an incredibly strong user feedback loop.



Although this isn't necesarily a good thing. Computer game design guru

Chris Crawford points out that Version 3 of most games will quickly crush

anyone who hasn't played Versions 1 and 2. Why? Because hard-core gamers

want bigger and bigger challenges, so each version gets more and more

difficult.



Obviously this is a successful marketing strategy -- up to a point, since

each release starts appealling to a smaller and smaller fan base.



> The sub-text of Clanton's talk was, I believe, that

> video game design serves as an object lesson that engineering usability

> doesn't necessary require the presence of usability engineers.  Which

> of course begs the question: would HCI professionals make video games

> more usable, or less?  Personally, I can't help but suspect the

> latter...



I can just see usability specialists looking for ways to reduce time-on-

task... "If we just gave the user invicibility, they've have a much easier

time slaying the dragon...." <g>





George Olsen



------------------------------------------------


I think this is an example of an industry in which customers have
trained developers to become good HCI designers, at least in a
limited domain. The first commercial video game was Computer Space.
It did not do well, partly because it was too complicated. The
first big success in the video game industry was Atari's second
game, Pong. The game instructions are along the lines of:

1. Insert quarter.
2. Avoid missing ball for high score.

Games have become much more complicated since then, but at the
genesis of video games initial accessibility was very important,
which meant "simple".

I think an important factor is that nobody needs to play video
games. They only play them if it's an enjoyable experience.
Difficult-to-use games don't do well. Conversely, business
applications like word-processors were driven by business needs,
not the needs of individual users, so they could get away with a
much higher level of difficulty. In fact, difficulty of use is
partly what  made early programs like WordPerfect a success,
because the people who operated the programs required training -- a
barrier to entry -- which gave them a leg up on other employees,
and employers had to use the software that they could hire trained
operators to use.

Another factor is that games are disposable, and there is a lot of
competition in every category. Most games are played for a while,
then users move on to other games. Productivity applications don't
have nearly the same amount of competition or turn-over, so they
don't have to try as hard to retain users by being easy to use.

Chris Page



------------------------------------------------


> I have only come across one formal attempt at examining game

> design from

> an HCI perspective: At CHI '98, I attended an excellent

> session by Chuck

> Clanton, then of Aratar, on "HCI Lessons from Games."

> Unfortunately, his presentation doesn't seem to be archived on the CHI

> site - which is a shame, because I thought it was one of the better

> sessions at CHI that year.



Well, since I seem to be Chuck's PR person on this list, I'll

repeat what I said about his work in the fun/design conversation

thread a couple weeks ago, which included a reference you might

find useful:



>I did a workshop at CHI 97 with Chuck Clanton on entertainment

>and UI (with a focus on games), and the writeup in the SigCHI

>bulletin has some references on entertainment and UI design.

>Since then, Chuck has done other CHI presentations on computer

>games and fun. He also has a paper on game design in the

>collection "Information Appliances and Beyond," ed. by Eric

>Bergman.  That whole collection is probably relevant to this

>discussion,

>since it deals with aesthetics and industrial

>design topics as well.





> Which

> of course begs the question: would HCI professionals make video games

> more usable, or less?  Personally, I can't help but suspect the

> latter...



I don't really agree, although I think you were probably being

provocative. Chuck works in the game industry regularly,

and solves hard UI problems (button-mouse sequences,

ease of using multiple input devices, etc.).  The game industry

doesn't have all the answers and makes really poor decisions,

sometimes, even bad for hardcore players.



For another example of an HCI professional reporting on a game

design problem, see Jeff Johnson's "GUI Bloopers"; there's an

appendix telling the story of designing interaction mechanisms

for a nonlinear interactive movie game.  You can see he is

approaching the problem like any HCI professional would,

rigorously and thoughtfully.

It's just a question of properly identifying the task for the

interaction design.  If the task is entertainment, the assumptions

change.  I would hope only a very stupid UI designer would

miss this point and make it easy to kill all the dragons. :-)



One of the more interesting challenges for a game designer

(and a game publisher, since this is a basic market segment

question) is whether to try to appeal to hardcore gamers or a

broader public.  An analysis of why some games become cross-

over hits and others don't can be revealing; it has something to

do with what counts as entertainment, and the types of

challenges presented in the game story.  Sub-genres of games

also determine the possible audiences; story-based adventure

games like Myst have a better chance of appealing to women

than classic action shoot-ups like Doom. The Sims and You Don't

Know Jack are truly "different" (though Little Computer

People was somewhat like the Sims, and was a hit too, back

in the Stone Age), and as such might have been a bit risky

for their publishers.   Doing yet another space action game

with strategy components like armies to manipulate and resources

to manage is a pretty sure winner among hardcore gamers,

though.  That market is already lucrative and safe.  It's just

like Hollywood, literally so: in terms of development team

composition, profits, and themes considered "safe" to invest

in.



As for HCI professionals getting into the field -- tough,

in many ways, because the game industry tends to use a kind

of apprenticeship method of hiring and promoting.  One of

the ways some kids (and I mean that) get in the door is by

getting hired as a game play tester.  Eventually they might

climb the ladder.  Game shops are also notoriously risky as

employers, tending to hire their staff for low amounts; they

often disappear quickly, unless they hit it big with a particular

title.   At least this is how it used to be: I recently

saw an ad for a UI design job at a UK game company.   No

idea of the details, it was a recruiter in front. (And

no, they didn't answer my letter :-)



Thanks for bringing up one of my favorite topics again.  I

wish there were more HCI involvement in this industry, I

really do.



Lynn Cherny



------------------------------------------------


This is an interesting topic but more familiar than you might at first

think:



As always, a primary HCI goal would be to ensure that the user can easily

meet their goals and succeed at their desired tasks. The goal of game

playing from the user's perspective is immersion and entertainment. The

primary job of the Usability engineer would be to make sure that all

challenges related to the game are intentional and non-disruptive to

immersion and entertainment for the target audience. (Obviously what is fun

or frustrating for a 12 year old boy is different than what is enjoyable for

his grandmother) Substitute the term "Playability" for "Usability" and you

realize that this industry has been extremely concerned with HCI-type issues

from it's inception. I know that they do extensive play-testing,

beta-testing, "play balancing", etc. There is also a lot of research and

testing for related hardware. Tell me that Microsoft didn't have usability

engineers working on the Xbox, for example.



Although there's sometimes a fine line between what constitutes the UI

versus what is the "content" of a game--particularly in a flight simulator

or auto racing game where the interface *is* the game for the most part, the

job of the HCI engineer in entertainment software is to make the UI as

transparent/intuitable and entertaining (non-frustrating) as possible. You

mainly want to make sure that the UI doesn't detract from the playability of

the game. If the decided challenge of the game is to fit blocks together as

quickly as possible then the fact that it's nearly impossible to read the

tiny, cursive, low-contrast instructions is an unwanted difficulty and

should be reworked.



If you watch a typical hollywood movie which has similar goals of immersive

entertainment and you think "that guy's a pretty good actor" then something

is wrong. You shouldn't even be cognizant that you're watching a movie once

you are pulled in. This suspension of disbelief is just as important for the

success of  games as any addict of "Evercrack" or "Magic: the Addiction"

could attest. On second thought, it might be in society's best interest to

insure that games aren't too much fun... :)



------------------------------------------------


> Computer game design seems to be an under-explored topic
> in traditional HCI circles.

On a related note, J.C. Herz recently gave a talk at the O'Reilly
conference on "Network Experience Design," in which she touched at
length on the behavior patterns of game players.

In the wake of Herz' talk, a couple of good discussion threads have
popped up at:

http://www.kottke.org/notes/0205.html#020524

http://peterme.com/archives/00000207.html

regards,
alex



------------------------------------------------
Although I have never worked on a games project, I do
attend the Games Developers Conference each year in
San Jose.  There are always a few UI people there,
although not many.  Microsoft are the main ones - I
remember talks about their WWII fighter pilot game and
the differences they made.  There are generally other
talks related to HCI as well, such as on colour and
how it is perceived (mood etc).  Some of the physical
HCI (ie games controllers) people attend too - I met
the manager who was in charge of developing the XBox
controller for example.  There is also a mailing list
for people interested in the usability of games, but
unfortunately I can't remember how to subscribe - I
know the administrator worked for Serco in the UK.

Microsoft usability test most of their games, and in
fact you can sign up online to volunteer (if you live
in that area).  And the XBox controller underwent
thousands of hours or usability testing (and I have to
say that I quite like the controller to use)

Here are some links on game usability that I've been
gathering - these are my favourites.
http://www.lightspawn.org/articles/19.html
http://www.ucc.ie/hfrg/emmus/MCGDoc/games.html
www.itlabs.umn.edu/classes/msse/courses/
gui/fall_2001/handouts/sw5115-11-2.ppt

Plus go to any site that deals with downloading games
(e.g., Palm sites) and you'll often find that they
have usability ratings now.

I think the usability community will have a bigger
role to play (ahem!) in the games industry in the
future.

Fiona



------------------------------------------------


There is an interesting article by Robert Nagle on games, especially
those designed for instruction, at:
     http://www.geocities.com/rj3nagle/games/
The article has several references which look useful.
--
Cameron Hayne




------------------------------------------------


I am really a layperson but have been looking at some
strategy games recently. Have found Civilization 3 reasonably sound.
Nice tutorial option. The menu groupings seem to make a complex environment
fairly straightforward to negotiate.

Found Capitalisation II by comparison was very disorienting.
The menus do not make it clear when you are browsing and when/how you are
implelmenting a new product in your facotry for instance.

I realise these arent very scientific responses and are not related to the
area that you are looking at.

I would be interested in learning more about usability in games too and so
would be keen to hear how you go with the project.

Cheers

Janet



------------------------------------------------
one of the interesting things about sports games on the
Playstation (as well as PC) is that many of the most popular games (e.g.
FIFA football, NHL, and NBA games) are all produced by EA Sports. They all
play in pretty much the same way. What this means, is that you can be
reasonably proficient at any of their games, if you've played one before -
assuming you know the basic concepts of how the game is played. They are,
in effect the same game with slight differences.

One of the biggest problems I've encountered though, is 'Sega thumb',
aching fingers from playing too long on a controller the wrong dimensions
for my hand - maybe they're designed for Japanese hands, but I don't have
particularly big hands, and playing for more than 10-15 mins at the time
leads to really achey hands - worse when playing a human opponent, than
the PS since I'm more competetive.

Hope this is of some use,

Ed



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May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
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April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
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December 1997, Week 4
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January 1997, Week 5

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