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CHI-WEB  January 2003, Week 3

CHI-WEB January 2003, Week 3

Subject:

SUMMARY: research on the benefits of plain language

From:

Dey Alexander <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Dey Alexander <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 19 Jan 2003 13:37:55 +1100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (198 lines)

Apologies for the extended delay in posting this summary, and thank you
to all who responded.  My original request appears below, followed by
the responses I received.

I also found this paper: "Results of usability testing research on plain
language draft sections of the Employment Insurance Act" available at:
<http://www.hrdc-drhc.gc.ca/ae-ei/loi-law/glpi-english.pdf>

Original post:
-------------
I have a colleague who is trying to convince senior management about the
benefits of plain language writing. Given that we work for a university,
she's keen on being able to cite any research that's been done in this
area (for delivery online or on paper). If any of you can point to work
done in this area, please reply to me privately and I'll summarise for
the list.

Responses
-----------
Kathy E Gill:

We recently had this discussion on PRFORUM.

Ensuring Readability in Consent Forms
<http://www2.truman.edu/grants/ensuring_readability>

Writing for Readability in Professional Publications
<http://www.kotesol.org/readability.htm>

Cut the Fog! Or the Readability Factor
<http://inspired2write.com/articles/cutfog.html>

Snippets from a long article:
<http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/11243/90872>

* More than one out of four cancer patients were not able to understand
any of 30 booklets produced by the American Cancer Society, according to
a 1995 study by Villanova University.
* The catalog of one California community college stated its "General
Education Requirements" - essential information for students just out of
high school -in text that required reading skills beyond those of a Ph.D.
* Three out of four adults 60 years and older find it "hard to
understand" most information in newspapers, said a study by the  Federal
Drug Administration.

The leading readability formulas are:
* Automated Readability Index, this is based on an analysis of texts
intended for school grades K through 7 and it is designed for automation
* Bormuth, this is calculated from the number of letters in words and
the length of the sentences
* Coleman-Liau, this is based on the same factors as Bormuth only for
text written for readership that follows through to college graduation
* Flesch-Kincaid, this is calculated on average number of syllables in
each word and average number of words in each sentence and equates
results to school grades. * Flesch Reading Ease, this is computed using
the average number of syllables in each word plus the average number of
words in each sentence, it provides a score from zero to 100. The higher
the score is, the greater the number of people who can understand the
writing.

Typical writing averages are between 60 to 70
* Kincaid, is based on Navy training materials designed for readers from
5.5 to 16.3 grade levels and it is most useful for technical documentation
* Gunning Fog Index, is based on 100 word selections of writing, it uses
the number of words and sentences, plus the number of words with three
or more syllables, then multiplication factors to compute the scale
indicating school grade levels.

Significant points on the Gunning Fog Index are:
* 18+ Reading level of a Ph.D. (federal tax returns, insurance policies,
legal documents)
* 16 Bachelor's Degree (technical writing for industry, military or
research)
* 13+ First year of college (usually ignored and/or misunderstood by
most adults)
* 12 High School graduates (Harper's Magazine, The Atlantic Monthly)
* 11 High School Juniors (Time, The Wall Street Journal)
* 10 High School Sophomores (Reader's Digest, Saturday Evening Post)
* 7 Seventh grade (most of the Bible)
* 6 Sixth grade (too simple to hold the interest of most adults)

Another citation from that thread:
In seminars with these folks,
http://www.communicare.com/page.asp?IdPage=168&WebAddress=communicare
they bring up something that I've found true, even on the technical
writing side of communication,
"No one will complain that something is too simple."

***
Beth Mazur:

I did a bibliographic essay on the subject a couple years ago. I just
noticed that the journal gave permission for the govt to post it on
their site, so you may find the citations useful. You can download it at
<http://www.plainlanguage.gov/hotstuff/revisiting.htm>
If you haven't already, taking a look at the resources on the following:
<http://www.plainlanguagenetwork.org>; they've probably added things
since I was there last!

I'd also suggest taking a look at David Sless' position. He's at the
Communications Research Institute of Australia, and I think he offers
some cautionary points about the "movement." See
<http://www.communication.org.au/html/paper_32.html>

I suspect the real answer is in the middle. Plain language techniques
are surely helpful if the alternative is horrible text that no one can
read. On the other hand, perhaps they are the equivalent of discount
usability; good if that's all you have time for, but no substitute for
real, user-centered (or David would probably argue for participatory)
design.

***
Chris Mohan:

Here are a few items that may be useful:

The Sokal Hoax: Alan Sokal, an NYU professor of physics published the
following article in a leading cultural studies "peer reviewed" journal
in 1996. The title of his piece: "Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a
Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity". His work was 100%
intential jibberish. He wanted to see if it would pass as a legitimate
article; the journal published it and Sokal then contacted Lingua
Frankua to expose the detriments the overly complex writing style and
what passes for thought within the post modernist feild of studies. For
more, see:
<http://www.physics.nyu.edu/faculty/sokal/>
<http://www.soros.org.mk/image/papers/aldis.htm>

The US federal goverment created a "Plain Language" initiative a few
years ago.
See: <http://www.plainlanguage.gov/>

While I didn't see any research based articles, here are a few that may
help:
<http://www.plainlanguage.gov/library/savings.htm>
<http://www.plainlanguage.gov/library/kimble.htm>

Christopher Hitchens' recent biogrphy on George Orwell contians a
chapter juxtaposing the writing styles of George Orwell and Theodore
Adorno. He cites the positive and negative aspects of each style. See:
<http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0465030491/ref%3Dpd%5Fsxp%5Felt%5Fl1/002-2577115-3627218>

***
Tom Weimer:

Although I'm a technical writer by trade, I didn't realize there was a
writing style recognized as "plain language" until I saw your message.
In other words, I'm no expert on the subject. However, I did a quick
search on Google.com for "plain language writing"
to try to educate myself, and turned up a couple things your colleague
might find useful:

1. Garbl's Plain Language Resources
<http://garbl.home.attbi.com/writing/plaineng.htm> contains a lot of
links to plain language information sources, some scholarly and some
more practical. The first of which is...

2. Answering the Critics of Plain Language
<http://www.plainlanguagenetwork.org/kimble/critics.htm>, a scholarly
article that outlines many benefits, with citations of relevant research.

Considering how often I am asked to justify why it takes a certain
amount of time "just to write a few pages," I am definitely going to
file these references in a handy place. Thanks for posting this message
and piquing my curiosity.

***
Leo Frishberg:

Here's an article from ACM's Communication's magazine

Practical programmer: Stodgy by design, and the notion of `dumbing up'
Communications of the ACM, Volume 45, Number 2 (2002)
While not a research paper per se, it outlines this guy's position on
plain language. It might help frame the discussion.
Here's the internal Digital Library link...but if you're not subscribed,
I don't know if you can access it...
<http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/510000/503139/p25-glass.html?key1=503139&key2=0885776301&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=5598845&CFTOKEN=10532118>

***
Barb Hanson:

Here's the place I go when I need to be reminded of the benefits of
plain language:

<http://www.plainlanguagenetwork.org/> (mostly a north american
reference, although there are references to some plain language work
being done in Europe)
<http://www.plainlanguage.gov/> (U.S. Government resource)
<http://www.clearest.co.uk/siteindex.htm> (British reference)

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January 1998, Week 1
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September 1997, Week 1
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June 1997, Week 5
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March 1997, Week 4
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March 1997, Week 1
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January 1997, Week 5

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