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CHI-WEB  March 2003, Week 4

CHI-WEB March 2003, Week 4

Subject:

Summary: Virtual keyboard case-sensitivity

From:

David Jacques <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

David Jacques <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 27 Mar 2003 16:39:37 +0800

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (269 lines)

Dear chi-web,

Below find the responses to my question on how to handle virtual
keyboard case-sensitivity. Because they were not too numerous, I simply
pasted the responses in their entirety below. Many thanks to everyone
who responded.

Many people pointed to a solution similar to that of the virtual
keyboard on the Palm OS.  In the end that's what we'll try, and might
try to get the physical keyboard to act on the virtual one as well (with
direct visual feedback on the virtual keyboard). Probably this will be
tested, so I might later have some results to share about this. Btw, the
system we are testing this for can only take passwords in alphanumeric
characters (no special characters), which simplifies the design and make
it somewhat less complicated.

Best regards,

David Jacques
Principal Consultant
Customer input (Hong Kong)


---original post-----
Dear Chi-web,

We had a while ago a discussion about new authentication measures for
secure Web sites (last time we discussed about an extra password).

My current client wants to investigate virtual keyboard usability. You
type in the password, and use a virtual keyboard with the mouse to key
in the password (this prevents password being captured keystroke loggin
software). I know a virtual keyboard itself decreases usability*** (did
tests on different security measures, short summary below), and I'm not
looking for confirmation on that. I just want to investigate how to make
it less un-usable. The way it works is that users type-in their username
in an input box, and below that is a virtual keyboard to click-in the
password.

I'm now specifically looking to find out how to handle case-sensitivity
and would like your opinion on this.  Given that the keyboard is very
simple, only letters and numbers with the qwerty layout, here's a
thought: There would be a shift key, and pressing it once would change
the case (letters on the keyboard would all appear in UPPERCASE.
Pressing again they would appear lowercase). This adds a lot of clicks
for passwords that have a good mix of upper and lower case however...
Another thing I want to investigate is whether the "submit" button (to
submit both the username and the password, to login) should be in the
keyboard (like "OK" or "Enter"), or away from it as a "login" button.

Has anyone tested something like this before? I'd like to get your ideas
on this.

You can email me, I'll summarize for the list.

Looking forward to hear from you,

David

*** We did a bunch of usability tests on a few methods; random digits of
an extra password, virtual keyboard, numeric keypad, etc. As expected,
performance compared to the usual typed-in username/password combination
was much lower and it frustrated users. Not only that but it failed to
increase perception of usability.


-----Original Message-----
From: Jeremy LaCivita [mailto:[log in to unmask]]

you could provide a virtual shift key, that behaves just like the real
one, instead of being sticky, and also all the use of the real shift
key, on the keyboard, so that the user can keep his finger over the
real shift key, and press and release it, as they click the virtual
keys.

if you decide to go with the behavior you described, i would just have
a virtual shift key, and virtual caps lock, instead of making the
virtual shift behave like a caps lock.  that way, users don't have to
figure out the semantics of this virtual shift key, it will just be
what they already know.

-jl

-----Original Message-----
From: Susan Ramlet [mailto:[log in to unmask]]

Hi, David,

You can use the PocketPC or Palm "soft" keyboard as a good example of
how case-sensitivity can work. While I don't *know*, I *hope* that
someone at one of those companies did some usability testing to prove
the functional model.  It's different than you describe, but quite
intuitive:

Caps Lock:  Determines if we're in all caps or not.  All the alpha
characters shift when it's pressed.
Shift:  Shifts the keyboard for only the next character typed.  (Note
that this means if Caps Lock is on, the next character after Shift is
tapped will be lower case.)

Note that special characters are excluded from this; for example, Caps
Lock on doesn't let us type !@#$%^&*( or ).  You must still Shift before
each of these special characters.

Hope that helps.

Susan Ramlet


-----Original Message-----
From: Gilbert Cockton [mailto:[log in to unmask]]

Loads of papers on this for PDAs, see past CHIs and UISTs - start with
'virtual keyboard' as a search term on www.hcibib.org

Good luck
GIlbert


-----Original Message-----
From: [log in to unmask] [mailto:[log in to unmask]]

Hi David,

I have come across a virtual keyboard in the Palm that I was using. This
one was very much the QWERTY keyboard; however, the Shift key behaved
thus -

1. pressing Shift enabled capitalisation/upper symbol (those above the
numbers 1,2,3...) of the first key pressed henceforth. Thereafter the
function would revert to lower case - as in a typical title case format.

2. pressing Caps lock, of course extended the above (minus the upper
symbol thing) to capitalisation of all alphabets pressed, until the
action was revoked.

3. Also I think, having the Submit/OK as a button outside of this would
be in keeping with the system you've described. As I understand, the
virtual keyboard would then be used purely for the password entry,
right.

Just my two cents. Hope it helps.

sincerely
Manoj


-----Original Message-----
From: Michael Mendelsohn [mailto:[log in to unmask]]

Hi David!

I have no data on this, just some general, unsupported ideas.

1) Computer games descended from consoles usually have player name entry
for
high score lists operated by gamepad or joystick. These "keyboards" are
always
sorted alphabetically, usually in a rectangular array. I believe only a
hunt-and-peck
typist would consciously be able to find a certain key location on the
screen if you
used a QWERTY layout on your virtual keyboard; an alphabetic layout
should
prove at least as efficient. (Completely unsupported, this assumption
should be
tested!).

2) Upper & Lowercase Letters and numerals are too little choice for
secure
passwords. Why not offer a third keyboard mode and make lots of special
characters available?

3) Why not use they keyboard to control shiftiness? The user could
operate
Alt/Shift/Control with one hand and the mouse with the othger, a skill
that
experienced users have aquired in the use of many applications, e.g.
Windows
Explorer, graphics applications, etc.
I doubt a keylogger would log these keypresses alone, and that they
would make
sense if it did;  furthermore, if the keyboard letters change when you
press one of
them, people are going to experiment and press th emodal keys more than
they
actually click, further obscuring their use in the password.

4) You also have on most mice a right-click and a right+left-click
available; why not
use them as well?

5) Pray that noone targets your system with a mouse logger. Smart cards
seem to
be the way to go for secure authentification.

Michael


-----Original Message-----
From: msans [mailto:[log in to unmask]]

Hello David,

  Regarding your problem  with the shift key, maybe you can test for the
real (keyboard) shift key and use it as an alternative to its virtual
counterpart. In this page:
http://cross-browser.com/examples/event_properties.html, you can see an
example of use for a cross-browser library (lgpl) which is able to to
this in many browsers.

  You could check the shift key in a periodic event (timeout), if it is
pressed, you change your virtual keyboard accordingly.

  I think this would make for fewer clicks, and a little more happines
to your users.

Good luck,
Mauro

-----Original Message-----
From: Tessa Johnson [mailto:[log in to unmask]]

I have no formal data here, but I'd like to make two suggestions.
First,
use the Caps Lock key instead of the Shift key.  With a standard
keyboard,
you hit Caps Lock to make all letter uppercase.  Hitting Shift only
works if
you keep the Shift key depressed the whole time.  Users may get confused
if
you change the model on the virtual keyboard.

Second, I would suggest you have a login button apart from the virtual
keyboard.  I think logging in is usually thought of in three parts
(username, password, login) and if you just use an Enter button on the
keyboard, many people may not get it.  As it is, many people never use
their
Enter button to submit forms.

Hope that helps a bit.  Sorry there is no real data to back it up.

-Tessa

-----Original Message-----
From: ACM SIGCHI WWW Human Factors (Open Discussion)
[mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Andy Dent

Jef Raskin makes a strong case in "The Humane Interface" for increase
security from just having a password, no username.

How about a doubled keyboard - duplicate the letters in an uppercase
area? For people addicted to symbols (and a lot of people who've been
security trained are) the corresponding duplicate area for the numbers
could be symbols.

I think it is far friendlier for quick entry and less likely to lead to
errors when people mix case.
--

Andy Dent

    --------------------------------------------------------------
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June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
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May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
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April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
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March 1998, Week 1
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February 1998, Week 1
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January 1998, Week 1
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June 1997, Week 1
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March 1997, Week 4
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January 1997, Week 5

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