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CHI-WEB  May 2003, Week 2

CHI-WEB May 2003, Week 2

Subject:

SUMMARY: Top Five Accessibility Guidelines

From:

"William Hudson (ACM)" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

William Hudson (ACM)

Date:

Fri, 9 May 2003 16:55:41 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (384 lines)

Please accept my apologies for the tardiness of this summary.

I asked:

If you were trying to steer organizations in the right direction for
accessibility - rather than ensuring compliance - what would your top
five guidelines be?

I'll start with (in no particular order):

- Size-adjustable text
- Alt text for images
- Screen-reader-compatible navigation
- Well-structured content (for intra-page navigation)
- Well-structure links (description first, hyperlink text meaningful)

----------

I received about 15 replies, not all enthusiastic about the idea of
picking five guidelines. I confess that the number is fairly arbitrary
but since part of my goal is to persuade companies that accessibility
needn't be too frightening, I wanted a short list. Also, many of the
suggestions (plus my own "starter list") address usability in general,
but I don't see that as a reason for excluding them. For example,
"well-structured links" do help all users, but are also pretty important
for assistive technologies.

For my purposes I have retained the five guidelines in the starter list,
but adjusted the  wording in light of some of the responses:

- Size-adjustable text
- Alt text for all non-text elements
- Navigation compatible with assistive technologies
- Well-structured content (for intra-page navigation)
- Well-structure links (description first, hyperlink text meaningful)

Note that some of these guidelines are pretty general. Well-structured
navigation, for example, should include tab order, although I am pretty
happy to add a caveat that forms and tables have much more complex
accessibility requirements.

All of the replies I've received are below.

Regards,

William Hudson
Syntagm Ltd
Design for Usability
US Toll Free 1-866-SYNTAGM
UK 01235-522859
World +44-1235-522859
mailto:[log in to unmask]
http://www.syntagm.co.uk

New low-cost dynamic picture-in-picture, DPIP USB!
http://www.syntagm.co.uk/dpip.htm

----------

I would say ALT text for all non-text elements, not just images.  But
the 
key here is that it be equivalent in information content.  Which is the 
hard part.

Elizabeth
--
Elizabeth Buie
Computer Sciences Corporation
Rockville, Maryland, USA
+1.301.921.3326

----------

Two points i can immediately think of :

- create webpages that are still meaningful when linearized
  >> this point overlaps with "Screen-reader-compatible navigation" i
guess
- split content from layout

Cheers
Gino Lardon [[log in to unmask]]

----------

I think you are leaving out 2 of the most important (and often missed)
"guidelines" - maybe you include them in the rather large point #3 below
(navigation), but I would point out or add: tab order and labeling:

1) Bad, un-logical tab order is frustrating not only to screen-reader
users,
but also to all keyboard users. Keyboard use should always be supported
for
ergonomic reasons. There are some "tricks of the trade" available to
enhance
tab order on the web, but most of all it comes down to understanding in
detail the core tasks that users perform on the page.

2) Labels for UI controls (using the label tag or alternatively the
title
attribute in some instances) is often missed by designers/web devs:
Obviously, blind users cannot associate a control with a label by visual
proximity, and if the designer does not explicitly tie that label to the
control, the screen reader may pick up nothing or associate the wrong
text
with the control.

Overall, I think that if you want to "steer organizations in the right
direction for accessibility" you need to be very concrete in describing
the
guidelines. Guidelines 3 and 4 below especially would need to be
qualified,
e.g. by adding the 2 points above as ways to achieve screen reader
compatible navigation.

Regards,
Klaus Kaasgaard [[log in to unmask]]

----------

1. Writing code that validates against published grammars.

That's it. The biggy of biggies.

-Gerard Torenvliet [[log in to unmask]]

----------

Most of these make pages more accessible for *everyone* ... and I had 
to go with six, not five. :)


1) ALT text for images (as well as height and width tags, a title, 
and begin the habit of long descriptions)

2) Well-structured links (no click here!; use descriptions and 
meaningful text; punctuation between a string of links)

3) Create readable pages: ensure sufficient contrast between text and 
background colors (avoiding heavy textures); use screen-optimized 
fonts; and avoid ALL CAPS.

4) Do not use images to communicate large blocks of text. The text 
will not scale, will not be readable by screen readers or search 
engines, and the Web is not print.

5) Use Flash, Shockwave, MPG, PDF and other "non-native" content as 
supplementary, not primary, information. Hint: avoid Flash and Java 
primary navigation schemes.

6) Establish a logical system for navigating links other than the 
tabbed order -- and communicate that logic somewhere on the site 
where it can be found. For example, I often set up the links in the 
"content" (contrasted with navigation links) using the alphabet .... 
starting with "a" of course!


Kathy

-- 
Kathy E Gill [[log in to unmask]]

Support Breast Cancer Research: Sponsor Me!
http://motogrrl.com/pe/

"Well behaved women rarely make history." - Laurel Thatcher Ulrich

----------

I found it hard to keep it to 5 but here goes

- Clear, concise & simple language (for everyone)
- Easy access to navigation, site search and body content (e.g.
invisible
links for screenreaders and careful placement of these elements for
people
with vision) (for everyone)
- Easy to contact a human for help (for all disabilities)
- Enough whitespace (for low vision, intellectual, motor)
- Large enough default text size (for low vision, intellectual)

- Good contrast (for low vision)
- Clear and immediate identification of what site they are on (for
everyone)


*********************************************************
and if you are interested, I have some comments on these:

- Size-adjustable text
I think this is a nice to have and not a high priority. Many disabled
people have limited motor co-ordination and like the rest of the
population
usually don't have expert browser skills which are required to increase
the
font size.

- Alt text for images
My observation is that this is mostly of benefit to people who use
screen
readers. It doesn't really consider people with low vision or people
with
motor difficulties. I know it is a W3C guideline but I am not sure it
should have the high priority that people give it.

- Screen-reader-compatible navigation
Yes
- Well-structured content (for intra-page navigation)
Yes
- Well-structure links (description first, hyperlink text meaningful)
Sure...

regards,

Wilhelmina von Buellen [[log in to unmask]]
User Experience Architect
Dimension Data Australia
0418 400 459

----------

Hi,

There is a serious problem with this idea of top 5 guidelines.  If a web
page
has a form, then the access requirements for a form could take up a fair
number of those 5 slots.

Scott [[log in to unmask]]

----------

Here would be mine, again in no particular order;

1. valid mark-up 
2. textual equivalents for all images and non-text objects - for images
this means alt attributes, longdesc or possibly a D-link
3. device independence both for output (viewing) and input (mouse,
pointer, keyboard etc)
4. relative sizing
5. separation of content from layout

Julian Scarlett [[log in to unmask]]

----------

My top five guidelines resolve to one; Create a system which recognizes
users' various recognition, attention and comprehension states and then
modifies itself to present the information as it will be best
recognized,
attended to and comprehended by each individual on a user by user basis.
My belief is that when you have that you have everything else.
Joseph Carrabis
---
Hocine bibo aut in eum digitos insero?

Joseph Carrabis, Principal [[log in to unmask]]
Next Stage Evolution, LLC
http://www.nextstagevolution.com
49 Brinton Dr
Nashua, NH 03064-1274
603 577 4575 voice
603 577 9636 fax

----------

William,

I disagree with your third point - why isolate screen readers? People
use many tools for accessibility - including the features their browser
provides. Navigation needs to be accessible, period - regardless of
which tool(s) are used by the visitor (which you cannot know anyway).
And your fifth point (slightly revised) actually is a condition for
accessible navigation.

And about that fifth point: Meaningful hypertext for the links is not
exactly an accessibility feature, but simply a general (and important)
usability issue: many user agents (including but not only AT tools) are
now capable of presenting a list of links in a page, and more people are
relying on such features. Such link lists present nothing *but* the link
text (there is no context of surrounding text) - so "description first"
should be considered as a nice "extra" but the link text should be
meaningful enough to stand on its own.

-- 
Marjolein Katsma      [log in to unmask]
Java Woman - http://javawoman.com/

----------

    My top five, general accessibility guidelines (in no particular
order):

Alt text-- Use for images that convey content.  For images that are
"spacers", decorative, or otherwise do NOT convey meaning, use an empty
alt attribute:  alt="".

Navigation-- Link text should be descriptive and use the clearest,
simplest language appropriate for a site. Provide "Skip to" links that
allow users to skip over redundant lists of links and go directly to the
main content on a page.

Structured Content-- Use valid markup.  Use tags appropriately, not
based
on how they display in a browser.  You may use CSS to control
appearance.  Ensure layout tables linearize logically; (that they make
sense when read in the order it's presented in the source code).  Markup
data tables using headings and associating information with those
headings.

Forms-- Place form labels immediately before their associated element or
use other markup to associate text and form fields.  Check tab order.
Ensure data entry is device independent.

Fonts-- Make them, by default, large enough for most users to read
(without requiring users to resize them).  Ensure they're resizeable for
those who need additional size adjustments.


- Anitra Pavka [[log in to unmask]]
Web developer  -  www.accesskansas.org
Web accessibility advocate  -  www.anitrapavka.com

-----------

Mine would be:
- logical site structure
- consistency
- positional cues
- breadcrumbs
- writing style suitable for WWW (short paragraphs, lists, important
words
emphasized)


Virpi Kurkela [[log in to unmask]]
Finland

----------

I would add:
high contrast between foreground and background
no animation (especially for those having limited sight but still enough
to
work without assistive technology)
no textured backgrounds

My 2c,

Rik Manhaeve [[log in to unmask]]
Belgium

----------

I would opt for the Bobby Priority 1 errors, but cover most of your
items. I would add colcor adjustable background and text, too. You can
find those at www.watchfire.com We also have a federal regulation in the
US, Sec 508, that sets criteria for government and government-funded
sites, so if you are working on a site covered by that, you have to do
what it says. The Watchfire site lets you check a page against those
regs, as well as against the Bobby guidelines. 

- Size-adjustable text
- Alt text for images
- Screen-reader-compatible navigation
- Well-structured content (for intra-page navigation)
- Well-structure links (description first, hyperlink text meaningful)

Mary Deaton [[log in to unmask]]
Graduate Research Assistant, Web Tango Project
University of Washington
http://webtango.ischool.washington.edu

When women are depressed they either eat or go shopping. Men invade
another country. -Elayne Boosler-
 

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