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CHI-WEB  June 2003, Week 4

CHI-WEB June 2003, Week 4

Subject:

summary: interface gymnastics

From:

Livia Labate <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Livia Labate <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 24 Jun 2003 02:26:01 -0300

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (477 lines)

Hello chi-webbers,
(cross-posting to [log in to unmask])

I received many interesting replies about my question on "interface
gymnastics" based on those gesture interfaces as portrayed in the films
Minority Report (2002) and The Matrix Reloaded (2003). Below are the
summary, references, full replies and original post. Here's the main
question:

| Reviewing the films  Minority Report (2002) and The Matrix Reloaded
| (2003), I was wondering about the viability of the interfaces they
| used (the translucent panels where you move items using your hands).
| Does anybody know about research on the ergonomics of similar interfaces?

_____________________________________________________________
  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

1. My question has a much broader scope than I anticipated, so this summary
is only a collection of resources for further investigations. I have drawn
no conclusions on this subject, except for the fact that the idea is very
cool and that there isn't enough research to prove its feasibility -
otherwise these interfaces would have become common for us all in our daily
lives. That is why I said I was wondering about its VIABILITY (got very
little feedback on this).

2. I was surprised both at how OLD the subject is and how non-popular it has
become (except for the 'coolness' factor perceived by lots of cinema goers).
Which could confirm that there is either too little research on its
viability or that viability just cannot be proved, meaning, this is all very
nice and interesting but not something usable, thus not 'commerciable'. I'd
like this to be proven wrong as it looks like it makes work lots more fun.
:)

3. It was interesting to see the comments from people who would personally
be interested in working with a system that demanded more from them
physically. Apparently folks are feeling a bit sedentary and blame that on
their current work environments. Isn't that an interesting commercial niche
right there?

4. Related to that, the silver screen has always shown neat interfaces like
this, specially on space ships. What I want to know is how would these
interfaces affect the folks on earth, the ones that drive to work every day
and would use these interfaces from nine to five. Would a librarian benefit
from this? Would organizing the digital collection of a library or even the
digital catalogue for print materials using a gesture interface make life
easier? or not?

5. Related to previous: Are the gesture interfaces just more 'accurate'
metaphors, closer to the real things? (read Mitchell Evan's post below)

6. If so, is the metaphor only useful when it comes to organizing? Or would
air traffic controllers use the interface the same way? (though they
organize a lot as well). What other uses are there that are not just related
to organization?

7. The interface's physical impacts on the human operating it is an answer I
could not get. Could John Anderton really run around chasing pre-crooks
after working on that interface? Yes, probably, but how about other types of
work - more demanding than his of comparing photographs and data? (read John
O'Donovan's post below) :)

8. The project I mentioned is Berkeley's Outpost. It seems great, I'd love
to give it a try - watch the video, it explains the whole thing very well.
It is also interesting how they integrate that with Denim, equally great
despite of the (very difficult to use) pie menu
http://guir.cs.berkeley.edu/projects/outpost/

This was fun. After all, research is supposed to raise more questions :)

_____________________________________________________________
  REFERENCES:

--Gesture Interfaces
Lots of good articles/news on gesture interfaces (2003)
http://nooface.net/search.pl?topic=gesture

--Gesture Literature Review (2002)
Some broken links, but good
http://www.alpern.org/gm/

--ZombieBoard
Interesting comment about viability: "Alternatives include keyboards,
speech, and gesture interfaces.  We perceive each as potentially viable but
possessing serious impediments as well.  Keyboards allow entry of arbitrary
text by those who are inclined to type, but they require an accompanying
console display that is expensive and ungainly in many whiteboard settings.
More seriously, whiteboard work inherently occurs not through intricate
finger movements, but at a physical scale of human arm and body movements,
often in a social setting.  To turn away from the other participants and
attend to a keyboard/console interface in order to operate a piece of
technology breaks the rhythm and dynamic of a meeting session.  Speech
recognition has reached commercial viability for some applications, but
strongly favors high quality acoustic input which is difficult to achieve in
an average whiteboard setting.  Gestural input with a stylus is appropriate
for whiteboard-scale interactive display surfaces, but not for the
lower-tech ordinary whiteboard."

(watch out, it's a *.DOC)
http://www2.parc.com/spl/members/saund/papers/zb-cobuild99.doc


_____________________________________________________________
  FULL REPLIES:

> lisa g. chan:

I remember posting to CHI-Web a while ago about this same topic...and then
shortly thereafter this was posted:
http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20011209.html
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> dave broschinsky:

I am not sure that this is helpful or not.  I certainly don't know of any
studies, but the Navy tends to use a Plexiglass board where they can chart
the activity of other vessels in their region.

On a side note, that type of interface is, by most estimates, about 8-10
years away.

Also, if we are making reference to popular culture, Battlestar Galactica
also showed the Plexiglass type of charting.
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> matt prather:

I know of no (recent) studies on this, but it does seem to become more and
more prevalent as the supposed "interface of the future" --- at least, it's
used whenever filmmakers want to convey a futuristic mood. The recent
"Earth: Final Conflict" television show was even worse, showing pilots
operating translucent interfaces in three dimensions. You'd think the
gymnastics alone would have thrown the spaceship off course.

The only justification or rationale I've ever heard for it actually came
from all of the newer Star Trek shows (The Next Generation, Deep Space 9,
Voyager). Some fans had asked about the touch-membrane panels as being an
effective interface in an environment where crew members were constantly
being shaken around and could easily hit a control by accident. The
justification given was that this interface was easily changed and
customized to suit the operator. It's the same rationale I've heard for the
translucent, projected interfaces. It seems a weak argument to me, but it's
the only one I've heard put forward.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> isaac games:

interesting post.

I'm thinking that in the Matrix Reloaded that perhaps there are some direct
manipulation issues that would be beneficial when virtually controlling
numerous security features that are linked to heavy equipment that could
also have some additional probing sensors and defensive equipment coming
into play.  Who knows, but I'd bet we'll see more of it in the next one when
the big battle occurs.

Of course minority report's technology seems to querying with GIS
capabilities (will be much easier than that by then, - yay for big brother).
Spielberg has alot of interest in this and at one point experimented with
virtual reality video arcades as a business idea.  I'm thinking this did
influence the 'gymnastics' because when virtual reality was hot, one of the
practical applications was supposed to be querying.

The futuristic vision was, in my opinion and with respect to the interfaces,
much more thought out for the Matrix Reloaded.  It would be interesting to
delve further into the development of the screens/direct manipulation
systems they used.  I would bet they were devised under the direction of an
interface designer under the direction of whatever futurist ruled the roost
in the repective productions.

The good news is that the technology of these movies always looks hoakie
after about 5-10 years so we have some real cool things to look forward to.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> alain vaillancourt:

Bruce Tognazzini called these kinds of interfaces "gesture" interfaces in
his two books (both available on Amazon) and on his website (www.asktog.com)
and in the 15 minute "Starfire" video SUN made on the topic back when both
Tog and Nielsen were still at SUN. And a lot of people have followed his
lead.

The research article you have in mind could be one of several hundred.  In
the last six years I have seen at least a dozen interesting ones around this
go by in the field of AR or Augmented Reality.  ACM conference proceedings
(SIGGRAPH, SIGCHI) and ACM and IEEE publications are filled with them.

You will also find some straight on the Web if you do searches aroung
"gesture interface" and related terms.

Hollywood really has no imagination.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> byron stevens:

A couple of years ago while working out a large IA project I broke away from
the tyranny of the monitor and  commandeered a whole wall beside my low-wall
cube. I used it in a similar manner as you describe, although with paper. It
was extremely useful & liberating to have the big total reference picture &
I would sit at my screen & work on details, but could also sit back &
evaluate the whole.

I'm sure I came up with solutions which I would never have conceived in the
small world of a monitor. Whenever there was a new idea or need to
re-arrange or experiment with relationships I would just jump up out of the
chair and do it and see what effect it had -not only on the details but on
the whole. It was very effective, refreshing & energizing & way more
conducive to working with complete-picture relationships between
information, workflow and design than the microscopic and singular view of
today's monitors.

I still use this powerful and effective design technique in large and
smaller formats & would love to be able to "work direct". I would prefer,
however not to have to stand up all the time - just when needed.

I wonder if many of these movie visualizations were influenced by Tog's
video-concept visualization of the Sun multi-wall workspace (whose name
escapes me at the moment).
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> katie harter:

For Minority Report, see this article on John Underkoffler of MIT:
http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/tt/2002/jul17/underkoffler.html

Check out his "Luminous Room" project:
http://tangible.media.mit.edu/projects/Luminous_Room/Luminous_Room.htm
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> andy edmonds:

On the whiteboard, the folks at GUIR at Berkeley have done a system called
"The Designer's Outpost",
http://guir.cs.berkeley.edu/projects/outpost/.

On the gymnastics, Gestures are used successfully in modern operating
systems with the mouse, in 2d.  Recent work
(http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/465214.html) has shown these to be a performance
boost for the oft-used back and forward buttons in web browsers. Free add-on
for Mozilla/Netscape at http://optimoz.mozdev.org.

Microsoft is doing work in this area now
(http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,110295,00.asp) and they've hired
a MIT Media lab PhD (http://research.microsoft.com/%7Eawilson/). Could be
some stress considerations from that angle.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> brad lauster:

In case you haven't heard of Sun's Starfire project, from 1995, you might
want to check out these links:

The "Starfire" Video Prototype Project: A Case History By Bruce Tognazzini
http://www.asktog.com/papers/videoPrototypePaper.html (good reference list
at the end)

Samples from the viedo (complete with horrible acting):
http://www.ipo.tue.nl/homepages/mrauterb/movies/SUN-Office-1.mpg
http://www.ipo.tue.nl/homepages/mrauterb/movies/SUN-Office-2.mpg

Those clips are pretty crummy. They don't show as much of the actors
physically moving things around as I remember, but at least you'll get an
idea of what the video was like.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> sarah waterson:

I can't comment too much on the ergonomics of Matrix/Minority Report
interfaces, except to provide a personal opinion. I would certainly enjoy
more body movement than the workstations of today provide. Most of the time,
my backside is firmly planted in my seat staring at my monitor, moving only
my fingers, sometimes my right arm to move the mouse, for hours on end. And
I end up sore despite fancy chairs and keyboards and what not... heck, if
I'm going to end up tired and sore regardless, I'd love to have the sense
that I phyiscally DID something. And (with no evidence whatsoever beyond my
own personal thoughts) I think there would be an advantage to incorporating
more physical movement into activities like searching and storing
information - muscle memory, spatial arrangement. I'd much prefer to work
with physical tools... especially if they can be made to work in the digital
world too.

The project you are referring to regarding the whiteboard is the Designer's
Outpost, a project done by graduate students Scott Klemmer, Katherine
Everitt and others at U.C. Berkeley. You can find out more about the project
at http://guir.berkeley.edu/projects/outpost/

Hope that helps!
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> gayle curtis:

Check out Denim http://guir.berkeley.edu/projects/denim/. See if that rings
a bell.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> mitchell evan:

Minority Report looked to me like a combination of several real-world
interfaces.

(1) Waving hands around in the air is just a different physical interface.
This exists today in the form of a Data Glove or other motion tracker. I
think there are folks at MIT working on using a camera, sans glove. Each
action in the air replaces an analogous touchable interface.

(2) Scrub, jog, and shuttle are interfaces where forward-back motion of the
hand translates into forward-rewind of video or audio. For example, in
real-life audio work I could twitch some controls forward and back to home
in on the first burst of sound in a spoken phrase on tape.

(3) Other actions taken by Anderton are very familiar: rewind, fast-forward,
stop, select, zoom, drag-and-drop.

(4) The translucent display resembles a "heads up" display used on aircraft.
Don't know why they needed it, though... Was it supposed to be 3D? Come to
think of it, goggle-less 3D displays exist today, too.

I found the interface fairly appropriate for its users. It was designed for
occasional, rapid, expert use. And Tom Cruise is no stranger to an upper
body workout.

I didn't see Matrix Reloaded. (Bad techno-weenie. Bad.)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> léonie watson:

I read your comments with interest and was struck by the thought that at
present, computer and largely technology, use is much too sedentary.

We currently don't participate in enough exercise or general movement during
the course of an office day. Instead we are having to "encourage" ourselves
to attend specific activities at other times during the week.

A more physically active approach to computing, as proposed in Minority
Report, could perhaps go some way to alleviating this.

The suggestion that this type of interaction would be too physically
straining and tiring is, if you'll forgive me, faintly ridiculous. I'm
frequently dismayed at the limitations we place upon ourselves. Humans are
physically and mentally durable and capable. There is no reason why a day of
combined mental and physical activity shouldn't be of benefit to our
lifestyles. It hasn't, after all, done much to harm the generations that
preceeded us!
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> pete gale:

it'd only be tiring for a sedentary type who'd spent years siting at a desk
doing nothing but moving their fingertips! The extra exercise would probably
be good for us!
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> john o'donovan:

I think the production quality of the interfaces are something to be
considered.

The ergonomics could indeed make them tiring (perhaps some sort of fitness
routine - The Jane Fonda Interface Workout?) but also fun to use, giving a
sense of satisfaction and affordance that may appeal.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> katie harter:

There is an enormous amount of research going on in the area of hand
gestures and input devices.  When I used search terms "hand gestures" "input
devices" together on Google, I found an enormous amount of information.  If
you were to do a literature search in some journals, you might be able to
find more specific information on the usability issues of such technology.

Here is an input device based on hand gestures, recently featured in Wired:
http://www.wired.com/news/gizmos/0,1452,58978,00.html
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> leo frishberg:

The project you refer to was demonstrated at CHI2001(?) in Seattle.  A quick
lookup in the ACM Digital Library for the CHI proceedings would get you the
details.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> simon reisman:

There is research on these kind of "gadgets". You can search for keyword
like: virtual keyboard and gestural navigation (I
think you can find an article named: "Issues of gestural navigation in
abstract information spaces" on the web). It also has some relation to
issues in wearable computers. Hope I helped.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> marios pittas:

Get a hold of EDGE a UK magazine for Computrer Games (special issue: EQUIP -
The insider's guide to the future of PlayStation 2 - part of a series with
each issue focusing on all the gaming consoles including the PC)...

They have a review of the EyeToy which lets PS2 users to interface with
games using movements - something like the computer has developed an eye and
it is looking at what you are doing LOL.., pages 12-19..
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

> jessica nowell:

Livia - I've actually wondered a fair amount about this myself, but don't
know about any interfaces actually modeled off of the concept (unless one
argues that any touch screen interface is a version of it) currently in
existence.

For what it's worth, the people in the Matrix reloaded example you mentioned
are actually in the matrix while performing their job duties - so perhaps
they just aren't allowing themselves to think they're tired... Of course, I
think sitting in a chair that long immobile would be pretty tough too ;}
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

_____________________________________________________________
  ORIGINAL POST:

  http://listserv.acm.org/archives/wa.cgi?A2=ind0306c&L=chi-web&F=&S=&P=924

  Sent: Tuesday, June 17, 2003 5:13 PM
  Subject: [CHI-WEB] interface gymnastics


  Reviewing the films  Minority Report (2002) and  The Matrix
  Reloaded (2003), I was wondering about the viability of the
  interfaces they used (the translucent panels where you move
  items using your hands). Does anybody know about researches
  on the ergonomics of similar interfaces?

  I get a feeling  that it  would  be  extremely  tiring  and
  physically straining  to have a job that involved that many
  movements  with  that particular interface.  Take Detective
  John  Anderton  (Tom Cruise) from Minority Report; he spent
  most of  his  day reading  and  cross-checking  information
  using  that display  -  standing up (can't imagine why they
  made it that way). A real techno-gymnastic.

  On The Matrix Reloaded, the ship control centre at Zion was
  inhabited by  five folks who  did the same (though sitting)
  in an environment deprived of any other 'noise' (completely
  blank room)  other  than  the  very  information  they were
  dealing  with. I assume  work hours  would  be  reduced and
  there would be lots of intervals between work sessions, but
  still...

  The  only  thing  similar  to this that I can recall was an
  interface (used by  information architects to  organize web
  site structures) that  consisted of a white board where you
  would  attach post-its  and that 'smart' board would record
  the information (this way you could move and change the post
  its)  and later you could 'play' it and analyze what changes
  were made and when they were made, and reiterate the process
  at any point. (I'd  also  love  it if anyone  could  tell me
  which project that is as I have already forgotten  - no more
  than 3 years old by the way)

  Minority Report, 2002: http://us.imdb.com/Title?0181689
  The Matrix Reloaded, 2003: http://us.imdb.com/Title?0234215


_____________________________________________________________


Thanks everyone!

Cheers,

Livia Labate
_______________________________
[log in to unmask] | www.livlab.com

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June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
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March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
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February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 5
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 5
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1
January 1997, Week 5

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