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CHI-WEB  July 2003, Week 1

CHI-WEB July 2003, Week 1

Subject:

SUMMARY: command line syntax usability?

From:

"Poston, Rick" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Poston, Rick

Date:

Thu, 3 Jul 2003 11:04:50 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (338 lines)

Thanks to all who kindly took the time to reply...

ORIGINAL QUESTION
=================
For the first time in quite a while I am asked to provide input on some
command line usability.

Anyone have an opinion or references on the best way to structure
command line commands? Here are some options/examples of what we are
trying to chose:

objectname action actionobject
(componentX delete profile)

objectname -d -a actionobject
(componentX -d -a profile)

action actionobject objectname
(delete profile componentX)

-d -a actionobject objectname
(-d -a profile -c componentX)

others??

SUMMARY OF RESPONSES
=====================================================
How about going with UNIX conventions, user tested by command-line
fiends the world over for more than 30 years?

   action object
   (rm badpage.html)

   action object newobject
   (cp goodpage.html newlocation/goodpage.html)

Cheers!
-Andrew
---
Andrew Hedges, [log in to unmask]
Interactive Multimedia Applications Group
The George Washington University
====================================================
> action actionobject objectname
> (delete profile componentX)

This is how it is on DOS and Unix so any user who has experience
with either of these systems will find this kind of syntax familiar.

Also it corresponds to natural language, at least English
and French.  Commands are action - object, e.g. "clean your room".

"Object oriented" is a great concept for programming but IMHO
it doesn't work for command language syntax.

- Gart, Mitchell [[log in to unmask]]
====================================================
I use the action/actionobject/objectname model with my user groups for a
number of reasons:

     - My experiences from user centered design, task analysis, and
instructional design confirm that users think of work in terms of actions,
then objects.
     - The action/object model is similar to those accepted for some other
kinds of user interactions, such as prescriptive voice UI prompts.
     - The model supports user assistance in what my experience shows is an
expected sequence (list of actions I can perform/list of object types
associated with the action/list of specific objects associated with object
type).
     - Many embedded systems already use such a model.

Regards,

Mike FarleyMike Farley [[log in to unmask]]

====================================================
>objectname action actionobject
>(componentX delete profile)

This is less appealing to me because:

a) It is "positional"; that is, it requires that all arguments appear in the
correct order, and if any are out of position, then the command fails (or
does something unexpected).

b) By looking at the command, I cannot tell what kind of object "profile"
is. For instance, if the command allows you to delete multiple objects, then
"componentX delete myObject" doesn't tell me whether myObject is a profile,
user, report, widget, etc. This may not an issue when you run the command
once only, but if the command is placed into a script and someone looks at
it months later, it may be harder to immediately tell what it does.

The only suggestion that avoids both of these issues is:

>-d -a actionobject objectname
>(-d -a profile -c componentX)

--Russ Seligman [[log in to unmask]]

====================================================
'In the begining was the command line' says Neal Stephenson...
http://www.cryptonomicon.com/beginning.htmlThis is not true in fact : before
was the fuse-boards and then punch-cards, BUT : that was the first time
computers were given the ability to undestand the language spoken by
operators.

As long as you consider 'command-line usability' something about matching
users habits I would say that most of the time the CL syntax begins by the
command (this has a technical reason since each command in a shell
environnement is a program or a script). Then a set of parameters with
name/value and various access levels (-a or --append), you may have noticed
the 'unix' flavour.

Actually I think there might be some others patterns, say you're in a OO
environnment where data is referenced thru a host object, this could take
completely other form : delete(componentX.profile); or even
componentX.deleteProfile();

However, I guess this comes down to one point : the idiom grammar related to
the underlying data structure.

A consistent grammar and a tight fit to what you manipulate are
undissociable conditions that help users to have legitimate expectations
about things they do for the first time.
This is in fact what I would call 'command-line usability' : the ability
(provided a generic minimal knowledge) to issue a command without to refer
to the manual every time.

My 2 cents
Lo. Lorenzo Pastrana [[log in to unmask]]

====================================================
IMHO it's more a linguistics problem than an usability one. A command
line is defined by a grammar that interpreters parse and translate to
lower level layer of an application (most commonly operating systems)

Which is more usable, "black cat" or "chat noir"? English grammar
defines that an adjective comes before a noun, e.g. "black cat". French
grammar defines the opposite (noun + adjective): "chat noir"

Can you determine usability of a written language? I don't think so.

Alberto Escarlate [[log in to unmask]]

====================================================
Here's another free opinion, worth every penny. :-)

I have a background in systems and network administration, and
have used DOS, UNIX, and VAX/VMS pretty heavily. I have also used
a wide variety of proprietary command interpreters for configuration
of routers, controllers, firmware and the like.

I believe that folks will expect command lines to work a certain
way based on their past experiences. If you can identify the target
audience, you might be able to look at the syntax of other command
line languages they use, and simply follow the most common model.

If I were doing this, I would put the verb first, because that is
the most common syntax I have encountered. For example:

delete blah blah blah

Also, I am surprised that you are naming an actionobject. If you
name an action and you give the objectname, the type of object is
implied.

Based on the complexity of available actions, there are a couple of
ways to order the rest of the command line. If the actions work on
one or more objects in the same way, or for actions that work on two
objects in a way that relates them, you can simply put the objectnames
after the action:

delete tablexyz

delete tablexyz tableabc tablelmn

move bobfile georgefile

If you want to add options that affect the details of the action, put
those right after the action. This allows the objects list to have
multiple items without causing problems with parsing:

move -r bobfile georgefile

delete /g /k /p tablexyz tableabc

Another approach I have seen used is to explicitly declare every
argument. This is helpful when two objects of different types might
have the same name and be eligible for an action:

move -s bobfile -d georgefile

This also means that order doesn't matter, which is one less thing for
the user to worry about:

move -d georgefile -s bobfile

If your primary audience will use the command line interface frequently
enough to really learn the syntax, this extra typing will eventually
make them angry. If they are only occasional users, they will appreciate
that they don't have to get things in the right order.

A really cool thing that VMS would do is prompt you for any arguments
you left out for a given command. For instance:

move <return>
FROM FILE: bobfile <return>
TO FILE: georgefile <return>

move from=bobfile <return>
TO FILE: georgefile <return>

It really comes down to the usage patterns of the target audience.
Expert users will desire the shortest syntax, while infrequent users
will want to be able to just make an explicit statement without
worrying about details like order of the arguments.

I hope this is helpful.

bye,

Elton Billings [[log in to unmask]]
====================================================
I've used quite a few different command line systems over the years and
designed several. The most common arrangement is

  action objectname

With qualifiers (-d -a) appearing anywhere on the line after the
"action". Sometimes the position of the qualifier is meant to indicate
whether it qualifies the command or the object (especially if there is
more than one object), but I think that approach is pretty error-prone.

I would urge you to avoid the actionobject concept except for creation
commands. Ideally the objects should have unique names so users do not
have to identify their type.

Regards,

William (Hudson)William Hudson [[log in to unmask]]

====================================================
I think you will need to explain actionobject.

I suggest two reasons for putting the action first. 1..If these are English
speakers, it is the natural order for an imperative sentence, e.g. Shut the
door. ¨2.. it is the standard in OS languages such as DOS and UNIX, ¨which
a high proportion of techz people will have been exposed to.


  Dick Penn [log in to unmask]
====================================================
Hi Rick - would be useful to know the context as this would help inform an
answer (for example you have an actionobject?).

To quote Jef Raskin, "Raskin advocates for noun-verb command construction
over verb-noun construction. When bolding text for example, choosing the
text and then bolding it is preferred over choosing to bold and then
selecting the text."

http://humane.sourceforge.net/humane_interface/hollands_review.html

However in general the CLI works has worked within a verb-noun structure:

Command [options] object

This article has some useful theory and history behind the options...

Verb - Noun / Action - Object

Splitting the key system elements into lists of nouns and verbs is
particularly key to early User Interfaces. The very earliest interfaces were
command lines. With a command line, you would type a command and then a
number of parameters that it was to work with, e.g. "compile mytest.c". This
is the verb-noun approach - often called the action-object approach. First,
select your action, then select your object to be acted upon. Many simple
menu-driven systems take this approach. Many easy-to-learn mass market
systems take this approach, e.g. early ATM machines, often greeted the user
with a message such as "select action: Withdraw Cash, Request Statement,
Print Statement" etc. This is the verb-noun approach.

The verb-noun approach tends to be useful for simple systems with a limited
number of choices, aimed at non-expert users. It tends to lead to very modal
interfaces. Once you start down the route of a single task/action then you
must complete it or cancel and rollback to the starting position. Each
task/action is a mode of operation. Most UI Designers will tell you that
Modal is bad. This on the whole is true but that's an issue for another
article.

Noun - Verb / Object - Action

More recent User Interfaces have tended to go for a noun-verb approach. -
often called an Object - Action interface. This has partly been driven by
the move toward object oriented software development, particularly in the
area of OS and GUI products. This technically led approach to noun-verb
interfaces makes me deeply suspicious. That too is an issue for another
article.

In the noun-verb approach the User is first required to select an object
with which they want to work and then to decide which action to perform on
that object. This approach is sometimes refered to as an Object Oriented
User Interface and is very well described in a book on the topic by Theo
Mandel, [Mandel 97], which is a recommended title.

http://www.uidesign.net/1999/papers/UIA3.html#DN3

Depending on how you are using the CLI there are other options for setting
the context but not possible to tell if this might be relevant to what you
are tring to do.

Cheers,

John O'Donovan [[log in to unmask]]

====================================================
The "noun-verb" model is generally accepted as a "best practice"


Kathy E Gill [[log in to unmask]]

====================================================

agains thanks to all,

Regards,
   Rick Poston

   SMS Usability Architect
   BMC Software

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