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CHI-WEB  July 2003, Week 3

CHI-WEB July 2003, Week 3

Subject:

SUMMARY: Printer Friendly Links / Pages / etc. (LONG)

From:

Gerard Torenvliet <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Gerard Torenvliet <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 21 Jul 2003 09:02:53 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (349 lines)

A while ago now, Dey Alexander, Amy Hendrix, and Gerard Torenvliet all
posted questions about the printing of web pages:

1.      What is the best placement on a page for a "printer-friendly" icon?
(Dey)
2.      Has any empirical research been conducted to determine if people
actually use these links? (Amy)
3.      Are there any trade-offs between providing a "printer-friendly" icon
and instead managing the styling of the "printer-friendly" version of a page
through the magic of print media style sheets? (Gerard)

Because these questions are all related, we decided to produce one large
summary on the topic of printing web pages. This is that summary (feel free
to print out a copy for your records...).

Note: You will get bonus karma points for printing this message out before
reading it.

Enjoy!

Dey Alexander / [log in to unmask]
Amy Hendrix / [log in to unmask]
Gerard Torenvliet / [log in to unmask]

RESULTS & SUMMARY

Q1. Placement of Printer-Friendly Icon

We can't get hold of Amy, so we don't know what she came up with. Hopefully
she will post a summary on her own!

One response received indicated that users of assistive technologies (like
screen readers) tend to like working through print-friendly versions of a
page. Accordingly, it is nice if the print-friendly option is close to the
top of the page (i.e., before the main page content).

Q2. Empirical Research into Usage of Printer-Friendly Icon

No one reported that any substantive research had been done in this area.
Other responses received spoke to the utility of providing print-friendly
pages, and are summarized with Q3.

Q3. Trade-offs in providing print via a CSS print style sheet (magic) vs. by
an alternate version presented behind a Printer-Friendly Icon

Working through all of the responses that were received to my question,
there were some strong suggestions that using a "printer-friendly" icon is a
learned response to the fact that printing normal pages is problematic. In
other words, people expect that normal web pages will not print well, and so
do not even attempt to print unless there is a "printer-friendly" icon.

In addition, users seem to be using the content in "printer-friendly" pages
for purposes other than the designed one. These pages generally do not
include advertisements (and other animated gif clutter), so some users find
these pages easier to browse. One respondent mentioned that
"printer-friendly" pages are his choice for reading on his Palm Pilot,
presumably for the same reasons. Another alternate reason for using the
"printer-friendly" version is to see an entire article on one web page; it
is then easy to copy and paste the article into an email to send to a
friend.

Under the assumption that one is providing print via print style sheets, one
respondent mentioned that an advantage of this approach is not just sizing
content so that the printed version won't have edges chopped off, but that
print style sheets can also specify different fonts (i.e., sans-serif for
on-screen, serif for printed). This helps users to get the best of both
worlds - one font optimized for on-screen usage, another for print usage.

There was also a suggestion that even if you do provide "printer-friendly"
content, people are still opportunistic: they may just try to print without
going to a printer-friendly version. If print style sheets can help make
them successful, that's a good thing.

Finally, Netscape 4.x apparently does *not* support print style sheets.

My conclusion from all of this is that print style sheets are an efficient
way to deliver printed content, but perhaps not as effective as using a
"printer-friendly" version that is accessed by clicking an icon. However,
since the use of the "printer-friendly" icon is an unnecessary task that is
currently performed as a learned response to the poor print behaviour of
non-printer friendly pages, it is possible that as web pages evolve to print
more and more according to user's expectations, the "printer-friendly" link
will go extinct. Since this is a possibility, my advice is to provide a good
print style sheet for all web content, and also to provide a
"printer-friendly" version behind an icon. The "printer-friendly" version
can just use the printer styles of the non-printer-friendly version (i.e.,
no duplication of content), so that when the "printer-friendly" icon goes
out of vogue (if it does) it can be easily retired.

INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES:

--

Mitchell Gart

One thing that bothers me is that online authors seem to take out pictures
from the printable version of a page.  A printable page can still have
pictures, as long as they don't move or anything like that.  One example of
a site that does this is the New York Times online.

--

Matt Prather

RE Gerards' question:

Anecdotal only, and only based on personal habits and those of folks around
me, but:

Yes, I do print "non-printer-friendly" Web pages, but only *IF*

(b) I do not intend to file or otherwise keep a hardcopy version of the page
*OR*
(b1) I do need hardcopy but there's no "printer-friendly" version available.

If I know it's to be filed (for example, my credit card statement), then I
will actually look for the "Printer Friendly" link and print from that one.

--

John O'Donovan

Hi Gerard,

For print only CSS style sheets I have used them where supported to make
more intelligent choices about font and background colours and it works very
well (where supported).

Rendering to print is standard in software and rarely a screen grab
equivalent. This usually works better because web browsers rarely make
sensible choices when printing and not generating printouts chopped on the
right hand edge or with stupid nearly empty pages.

The problem people have with printers is that they just want to hit print.
The browser rarely then makes a good job of printing what it is they
perceive to be on screen and forces them to fiddle with settings. This is
mainly because what is on screen is printed as something equivalent of a
screen grab and this does not fit onto the printers format well.

Better to actually consider how a page should be rendered for printing.
Flash also has a rendering model for printing allowing you to create
different versions of content for printing. Given the format of flash this
is very sensible.

On the web we have just go lazy and expect the browser to sort it out when
it rarely does this well so I don't have a problem with having to make an
effort to ensure printouts are contextually relevant to the content on
screen.

As a test, see how many print previews on the web actually make intelligent
print choices...

--

Adrian Howard

On Tuesday, June 24, 2003, at 05:01  pm, Amy Hendrix wrote:

[snip]
> My question is this: Does anyone know of any research on whether users
> use those links in the first place? I've never seen any hard numbers
> one way or the other, but in my experience, people almost universally
> print the onscreen version of a page instead of clicking through to
> the printer-friendly version. I'm not sure if I can remember ever
> seeing anyone click on a print version link, as a matter of fact --
> but that's purely anecdotal, and not based on testing.
[snip]

No actual papers to point to, but my experience (both personal and when user
testing).

-       Some users use "print" links both for online reading and printing
when the online version is split onto multiple pages.

-       Some users use "print" links to avoid noise on the online version.
When queried after testing several users said they did it to avoid animated
adverts in the sidebar that prevented them concentrating on the text.

-       In one site that I tested the "printable" version also had live
links
and navigation (also acting as the "accessible" version of the content).
Users often stayed in the accessible version once they had followed the
"printable" link. We didn't have time to figure out whether this was because
they couldn't or wouldn't get back to the "normal" site - but verbal reports
suggest the latter. They liked the print version because it was faster and
easier to read. Much to the graphic designers chagrin :-)

When asked about using the links some users commented that "printable"
links were something they looked for as part of their normal browsing habits
since they found it produced a better experience.

Glancing back at the user reports the use/ignore ratio for "print"
links was 4/8 and 3/7 in the two tests I ran. This may not be representative
of "normal" users since it was a very net/technically literate group.

So yes, in my experience, people do click on the links ;-)

--

Nancy Brigham

One area where users get experience using "print" versions is with online
maps. If you don't click to the print-friendly version, you get two pages
that include a small map. If you go to the "print map" link, you get one
page with a larger map that's much easier to read and use.
I'm guessing that people who regularly look for maps online would try out
the "print" version. But this isn't based on anything but my own experience.

--

Heather Johnson

Re: Amy's question

Yes, I use print-friendly icons to print a page that is wider than 640.
Pages wider than that get cut off on the right when printed. Very annoying
to print out several pages, only to discover that the end of each line is
missing.

Anyone have suggestions for how to print such pages when a print-friendly
version is not available? My Mac lets you size the printout, but I haven't
found a way to do that on a PC.

--

William Hudson

Amy -

> ... people almost universally print the onscreen version of a page
> instead of clicking through to the printer-friendly version. I'm not
> sure if I can remember ever seeing anyone click on a print version
> link, as a matter of fact -- but that's purely anecdotal, and not
> based on testing.

It will depend a lot on individual experience. There are a lot of sites that
are teaching users that "print" doesn't really work. Users end up with
numerous pages showing navigation panels and other stuff irrelevant for the
printed version, with the actual content of interest truncated or split
across several page boundaries. Maybe this is just bad design, but there
seems to be a lot of it about. I also don't expect the average user to work
out the "print just the useful frame" option that is buried in Internet
Explorer - it's just not something that most are used to.

If printed output was important for my site, I would make sure that there
was a "print" icon of some sort to show that I was serious about useful
printed output.

--

Bart Schultz

Gerard,

No conclusive answer to your question.
Our research/ usability testing at MetrixLab reveals the following PRO's &
CON's:

PRO CSS print only
- users prefer serif type letters (Times New Roman, Garamond, etc.) when
reading from paper and sans-serif (Arial, Verdana, etc.) on-screen.
- users appreciate the ability to discard navigation and bannering when
printing.
- They hate pages spreading over multiple pages (in width) when printed.

CON CSS
- I'm sure they appreciate your 90's acronym 'WYSIWYG' too.

The balance is an interesting question! I'm looking forward to your summary!

--

Alberto Escarlate

Another use of the printer-friendly links that I notice people using is to
display a multi page article in one page and copy and paste it into an email
message. Some people are not willing to enter their 'friends'
email addresses or just not trust that the tool will deliver the article the
way they'd like.

--

Doug Heathcoat

I use "print friendly" links for the same reasons people use them to print
hard copy, but I convert the page to a Palm document for download and later
reading.  My two cents.

--

Marjolein Katsma

Actually, I often use a "print version" link not to print, but to _read_ a
much less-cluttered page, with only the content that matters! One more
click, one more page load, but much easier to read without unnecessary
distractions.

--

Larry G Hull

Some people with disabilities using assistive technology and at least a few
(like myself) who do not use assistive technology prefer to read the print
friendly version. It is very nice to find the link high on the page (early
in the reading order and/or link list) as this benefits those who are
visually impaired or have difficultly scrolling due to limited physical
mobility.

--

Amy Hendrix

I don't know offhand of any research on link placement, but I can't help
wondering why continue to maintain a separate print-friendly version at all,
and ask users to click through, when you can do the same work with a single
version and CSS?

--

Richard Miller

In a study we did a few years ago on a beta of a product we wound up adding
additional "contextual" information to the printed version that was not part
of the normal view. This included a price (how much the queries cost, so
they could attach that to a bill for their services) and full headers and
footers that appropriately titled the document and gave it the context to
the time and date the "Printer Friendly" view as invoked, it also removed
(obviously) the navigation and non-data related information. We also put a
cross-reference index at the end that took the list of results and sorted
them into meaningful "other" views. The Printer friendly icon had the same
"status" as other "actions" that could be performed on those objects.

Gerard Torenvliet / [log in to unmask]
Lead User Interaction Designer
Watchfire, Corporation (www.watchfire.com)

1 Hines Rd., Kanata, ON, CANADA, K2K 3C7
Ph: (613) 599-3888 ext 4024
Toll-free: (888) 245-5550 ext 4024
Fx: (613) 599-4661

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April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
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January 1997, Week 5

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