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CHI-WEB  August 2003, Week 3

CHI-WEB August 2003, Week 3

Subject:

SUMMARY: card sort order effects

From:

"Martin, Chris C." <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Martin, Chris C.

Date:

Tue, 19 Aug 2003 11:01:30 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (220 lines)

SUMMARY
A majority of responders suggested that I do the card sort first to avoid
having the current site structure bias the participants. There was a range
of explanations, though, and the messages are listed in full below.

ORIGINAL POSTING
Hello all,

I'm involved with a usability test and card sorting exercise. For both we
have to use the same set of nine participants, so we have to decide whether
to do the card sort before or after the usability test.

We know of one case where card sorting was done after usability testing.  In
that case, the participants did not sort the cards in a manner that
reflected the current site structure. This could mean, however, that
participants felt under pressure to improve the site structure.

Apart from one source that says card sorting should be done before
participants have seen the site at all, we haven't found any guidelines or
research on this issue. We realize that some order effects are going to bias
our results regardless. But if anyone here has experience with this issue
and found that a particular order works better, please e-mail me. I'll
summarize the results and post them to the list.

Thanks,
Chris

RESPONSES
Chris
I'd suggest your strategy depends on your objectives, and the degree to
which things are already set in stone.

For instance, if your basic site architecture is no longer amenable to
change, I would do the card sort afterwards (depends what you're sorting on
too), whereas if you still have total flexibility and are looking for fresh
ideas, do the card sort first (your own UI is then one of a number of
possibilities).

Louise Ferguson
---
Hi Chris,

I completed a joint card-sort and usability test recently, and chose to do
the card sorting first.

I don't have comparative or empirical evidence, but logically it is likely
that the current site structure could influence the card sorting exercise.
The only way I can think that the card sort could influence the usability
testing is that the participants would know the extent of the content on the
site. Therefore they might 'know' something is available on the site and
keep looking for it when normally they would not.

I got round this effect by emphasising that the cards included current and
possible future content.  There wasn't one instance I could spot of
knowledge from the cards influencing the usability testing. However, it
could vary depending on the type of site you are examining.

Hth,

-Alastair Campbell
---
Dear Martin,

At our organization, I aim to always conduct card sorting before usability
testing.  In my view, it seems illogical to offer users the chance to sort
navigation after viewing 'proposed' navigation.  Allowing the end user to
sort without any conceptual baggage is great stuff and yields excellent
results!

Cheers and good luck,
Vincent

Usability and Standard Project Leader
Mercedes Benz USA
Web Operations Center

---
I presume you'll at least be consistent with the same order for all
participants.  One possible advantage of doing the test first is that
the users become a bit more familiar with the site and it's contents.
If, in doing so, they have difficulties in finding things, then that
could also have the advantage of their thinking more about where those
things (as well as others) ought to be.  Thus, the card-sort results
might be more useful.  In an attempt (that's all it is) to minimize the
bias to sort things the way they currently are in the site, I'd
instruct them to not concern themselves with where things are currently
in the sight, but just with how they feel they ought to be organized to
make the most sense to them.  BTW, because I'm interested in card-sort
tools and methods, I'm curious about what methods and tools you are
planning to use.  Thanks.

- Larry Wood

---
Chris wrote:

>| we have to decide whether to do the card sort
>| before or after the usability test


Why not do two card-sorts, one before and one after, then compare data?


>| We realize that some order effects are going to
>| bias our results regardless

Doing two sorts (before and after) should reveal bias.


Be Well, Derek
---

Hi Chris,

Let me first clarify a few assumptions prior to providing my answer: the
objective of the card sort is to identify an ideal information architecture
and the objective of the usability test is to evaluate something other than
the information architecture and nomenclature. If these are true then my
recommendation is as follows:

I conduct a lot of card sorts and when I have a usability test in
conjunction with it, I would recommend conducting the card sort before the
usability test. The reason being that in the card sort, you will gain the
users' expectations as to how the interface should be arranged. They will
then carry these expectations into the usability test and as long as the
categories you provide are logical, I would expect a user to be able to
navigate within them to test what you were wanting to evaluate - even if the
categories aren't the same. If you are really concerned about a bias, have
the user take 5 minutes between the card sort and usability test and
complete a distracter task.

If you run the card sorting second, they may try to replicate the interface
they just saw, whether intentionally or unintentionally - which would defeat
the purpose of the card sorting exercise. Or, as you stated below, the users
may feel pressured to improve the site structure.

Hope this helps and please let me know if I can provide any additional
information.



Kristen Miller

Sprint Enterprise Web Solutions - User Experience

----
Sort, then usability testing.

A couple of things to keep in mind here. What you're really looking for
is a behavior pattern among the group. Conducted correctly, card sorts
can overcome particular biases. It's important to emphasize that users
should be grouping items into groups that they feel make the most sense
if they were going to look for a product, service, or perform a
particular task. That may or may not be reflective of the current
structure.

We just went through a similar scenario with a large financial
institution. One of the sorts used an internal group that had biases
coming into the sort. We were able to overcome these biases by using
the method suggested above.

I did a paper on Card Sorting which might help. You can find it here:
http://messagefirst.com/downloads/ModelingOrganization.pdf

On Friday, August 1, 2003, at 2:51 PM, Martin, Chris C. wrote:

> But if anyone here has experience with this issue
> and found that a particular order works better, please e-mail me. I'll
> summarize the results and post them to the list.

Cheers!

Todd R. Warfel

Message first: a user experience consultancy
.--.==.--.==.--.==.--.==.--.==.--.==.--.
User Experience Architect
[P] (607) 339-9640
[E]  [log in to unmask]
[w] http://www.messagefirst.com
.--.==.--.==.--.==.--.==.--.==.--.==.--.
In theory, theory and practice are the same.
In reality, they are not.
----
Hi Martin

I also don't know of 'official' guidelines on the order of the 2 methods,
but I have several times run these as a combo and always done the card sort
first followed by the test.  It just seems more logical - with the card sort
you get an insight to the ideal structuring of the info topics for that
person, then you introduce them to the way that the company ordered them, as
reflected in the navigation / levels.  The effect of a person transferring
their expectations when looking at the site in a test is pretty negligible
since that is something they would (subconsciously) do anyways as the test
out the categories when searching for info.   That is better I think than
doing the test first since seeing the navigation seems to imply that this is
the 'correct' way these things should be structured, especially for someone
unfamiliar with that info domain.  That would have much more contaminating
effect on the card sort results I think.

Based on doing several combos of about half hour card sort followed by half
- 1 hour test, it seemed to work well and gives you the best of both worlds
- a view of the 'ideal' structure for that person, as well as a more
analytical view of how much of an effect the proposed web site info
structure is having on task success etc.

Hope this helps and good luck

Chris Rourke
Director
User Vision - Focusing on the user experience
http://www.uservision.co.uk

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April 1997, Week 1
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February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
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January 1997, Week 5

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