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CHI-WEB  August 2003, Week 3

CHI-WEB August 2003, Week 3

Subject:

SUMMARY: Corporate Investment in User Centered Design

From:

Jim Griesemer <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Jim Griesemer <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 18 Aug 2003 17:13:15 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (291 lines)

All,

Thanks to all who responded. Thanks also to Peter Merholz from Adaptive
Path, who forwarded the post to their alumni list. Yes, Peter, your seminar
had a great positive impact.

What follows are the responses I got. It was hard to summarize since so much
that was said relevant to the issue. So they are intact, separated by dashed
lines. At the bottom, I have a few comments on the responses listed here and
an update on the User Centered Design approach is evolving for our project.

------------------------------------
MY INITIAL POST:



I am in the process redesigning a corporate Web site. Last year, I attended
Adaptive Path's seminar on Information Architecture from Mental Models at
User Interface 7 East. I found it to be quite a revelation. It completely
blew away any preconceived notions I had on how to design an effective site.
So naturally, I wanted to employ what I had learned to make the site user
centered, and thus far more usable.

If only a revelation was easily transferable! I found that resources for
interviewing the target audience were simply not available. So I trying the
next best thing: interviewing those in the company who know the target
audience best. I am finding even this is difficult. Despite explaining the
value, people appear to be reluctant to invest the time now, though history
has shown that many are very willing to offer opinions after the site is
launched. Have any of you acquired a successful technique of convincing
stakeholders (which ultimately amounts to the whole company) of the value of
investing time up front to make a corporate site truly user centered? I
would also be interested in any caveats you may have discovered in
interviewing those who know the audience, as opposed to the actual audience.

Please respond to me and I will summarize.

Jim Griesemer
UI/Web Designer



----------------------------
RESPONSES:
----------------------------

We're currently going through a site redesign and consolidation
(absorption?) of our extranets into the corporate intranet. During a recent
usability session, we interviewed a 3 levels of employee--user, manager,
manager's manager (channel manager/director). We definitely noticed the
change in responses, the more removed we got from the day-to-day user. The
manager/channel manager/director were basically guessing what they *thought*
their employees were doing which in turn, was not what the users themselves
were telling us they were doing. Based on this, we revised our list of
candidates for the next two sessions to include more users and fewer
managers. Why design a site based on guesses and assumptions?

----------------------------

I have found that producing a pilot report with ROI documentation in the
appendices (and referred to in the executive summary) has been effective.
This report should go to the top (senior management) and be distributed
down.

How do you create a pilot report and why?  Well, asking the people that know
the users best usually isn't the "next best thing".  Targeted users of the
system (knowing their goals, motivations, distractions, environment, etc) is
the best - personas of these users (incorporating as many facets as
possible) is the next best thing.

Pilot reports are where you visit the targeted users in your own time, using
your own equipment and capture requirements for just a small
section/function of the site.  From this, you build personas, create paper
mock-ups based on your enquiries, go back to the users,

iterate your prototypes, then test those vs. the comparable section/function
that has come out of traditional UI design.  If you videotape these sessions
and can show a confused/frustrated

user in a real life situation with one of your company's products vs. a
happy customer using the same product that you have redeveloped, it adds
even more credence.

OK.  You have the report, you have some video evidence, now add some of
these reports on the ROI of usability to the appendices
(http://www.rashmisinha.com/useroi.html).  The last thing you need is to
develop a path to achieving this utopia - how to manage the change in
methodology and culture.

Book some time with your CEO/CIO (or even better, all of senior management)
and present all this to them in a simple format that looks at their goals -
the bottom line - supported by their secondary goals - happy customers/good
corporate image/happy shareholders.  Be careful not to diverge and head down
an enthusiastic, well-meaning, but off-putting evangelistic path of
usability.

Yes, this all takes quite a lot of time, but getting this to the key people
makes you look good and helps drive a culture of user-centered design
throughout the organization.  Remember, if it's worth doing - it's worth
doing right.

I hope this helps.
Best regards,
Ash Donaldson
User Experience Designer

------------------------------------------------

for what it's worth, here are my views/opinions:

a) those who know the users best are a poor second best, as you already
intimate. The problem here is that they are a filter and apply their own
perceptions to what it is that the end-users actually value. The classic is
dealing with business managers and people who say 'we know what our clients
need/want' to then only find that those views are at odds with results from
actually researching client needs/wants;

b) with respect to information architecture, the people 'who know the
end-users best' will tend to drive design towards their own needs based on
business content ownership and their own organization mental models. One
example of this contrast is the navigation structure that is based on
organizational units or functions where as the client might prefer a
life-events organization;

c) how do you get management to 'invest' in the necessary client/end-user
research... with great difficulty if they are not already on board with the
value of content. Managers and business owners need to gain an understanding
of the value of content. You may wish to look at some of the blogs on Gerry
McGovern's site (www.gerrymcgovern.com). At the end of the day though, you
can have millions and millions of pages on your intranet but if the users
can't find what they are looking for or can't understand what they find,
then the 'investment' in that content is wasted;

d) my model for dealing with this sort of issue has been to attempt
education at the top of the organization. I have had some successes and some
less successful experiences. Where I have been successful, I have adopted an
approach encapsulated in the ABCD planning model, i.e.

  A - Where are we now?
  B - Where do we want to be?
  C - How are we going to get there?
  D - What are the next steps (these MUST be owned by the relevant business
owners)

You can find a version that is based on this at http://crouchnet.com/.

e) and then there is all the supporting research that is out there in
cyber-space. One article I particularly liked because it gave me a
four-staged model of the 'evolutionary' development of an intranet is:

"Managing the crisis in intranet implementation: a stage model", Jan
Damsgaard & Rens Scheepers, Information Systems Journal 10 131-149,
Blackwell Sciences Ltd, 2000.

This model raises the need for critical mass in both content and users to be
achieved in stage 2 and that if not achieved, there is no real development
in successful use of the intranet beyond stage 2. For management, this of
course raises the question of what constitutes 'critical mass' for content
and users in their respective organizations and how this critical mass is to
be achieved. In the latter case, i.e. users, as you are proposing,
user-centered design is at the crux of this particular concern.

If I remember correctly you will find the journal at
www.blackwell-synergy.com. It needs to be purchased, and I think it is
around US$19.

Hope that helps... at least a bit.

regards
Tony Kisbey

----------------------------------------

I saw your usability pain and feel it too.  I get people to cancel on me
last minute all the time.

Food and cash and other giveaways are good ways to get commitment.  If it's
part of your internet go outside the company for users.

Also, try and limit your time with the user to 45 minutes.

Bill Ivers
eBusiness



---------------------------------------

I have experience building intranets as both a third party consultant, as
well as an internal developer within a company.  The following is my
experience developing within a large traditional software corporation.

Our team pulled together stakeholders from across the entire company last
year to develop a corporate intranet with a pretty great success rate. My
direct manager is at the Director level.  He, along with the Vice President
of our department, were able to put pressure on stakeholders across the
company to participate in the entire interview and development process.  The
main pressure was summarized as:  if they wanted representation on the
corporate intranet, that they needed to dedicated a resource to our project.
This directive was sent to the highest level of the department(VPs and
Directors).

We gave them estimates on how much time we expected that their team
member(s)
would dedicate to the project and the timeline for completion(when THEY
would see results).  The carrot was that each department's content and
expertise would be represented if they were willing to participate.  If they
were not willing to pick an employee from their team to drive this effort,
that we could not promise that their content would be included.

The employee representatives that were chosen often delegated to several
beneath them the task of being interviewed and coming to the large
development meetings.  Those employees also tended to delegate tasks and
further content hunting out to their teams.

The Sales department had the best representation on our full development
team, because they cared the most about their content(due to it tying with
their compensation incentives).  So, upon launch, the following departments
appeared to have the most contention the intranet: Sales, Learning, Human
Resources, and Engineering.  The least participation came from: Marketing,
Corporate Affairs, Public Relations, Internal IT, Legal, Consulting, and
Service/Support.

Basically, you have to get a stakeholder from the highest level to care and
to drive the participation.  It must be held as a "do now" or "don't
complain later" type of threat.

One note, as you design and build expect that the other departments will
provide content one day.  Keep them in mind and leave room for their content
one day.

If anyone wants to chat more about this directly, please contact me at
[log in to unmask]

Hope this helps
- Lad

Lad Decker
Information Architect
Cerner Corporation
http://www.cerner.com
http://mycerner
[log in to unmask]
816-201-4239

------------------------------------
MY COMMENTS ON THE RESPONSES:
------------------------------------

I found the comments on getting corporate "interest" on User Centered Design
very helpful and have recently experienced some of what was stated. I was,
however, a little shocked at the hard line on the alternative scenario to
direct target audience interviewing. When faced with a preferred approach
that is absolutely non-viable, from a resources perspective, is doing
nothing really an alternative? I think not. I would not stake my work or the
company's image on an all or nothing approach. If it follows, as some of you
suggest, that those in a company who interface with the target audience
don't know the target audience, then the structure of the web site is not
largest problem at hand. You have to have *some* foundation better than
sheer speculation.

We were aware of the possibility that the staff may fall into their own
agenda and opinions, which is why we specifically constructed task-related
questions from the audience point of view (defined in various personas). We
also emphasized absolute objectivity and asked for a willing suspension of
their own knowledge of the company and its products. We even asked them to
phrase their responses in the persona's voice.

The results have been interesting. The exercise has re-focused attention in
various departments on clients' needs. It has identified gaps that needed to
be addressed. It has provided invaluable data for the company's message and
positioning. It has created stakeholders that, I believe, feel invested in
the site because they have already contributed to its construction. High
level meetings on the site structure were amazingly free of speculation and
references to personal "Web site favorites".

I think it behooves us to not be too draconian in our approach to this
issue. And even when we do get resources for full target audience research,
I think it would be valuable for the "contact people" of the organization to
see the results and give some feedback.

Jim Griesemer
UI/Web Design

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January 1997, Week 5

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