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CHI-WEB  September 2003, Week 3

CHI-WEB September 2003, Week 3

Subject:

SUMMARY: File Naming for Unix Servers

From:

Leslie Carter <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Leslie Carter <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 14 Sep 2003 08:55:34 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (235 lines)

ORIGINAL POST:

Since Unix doesn't allow spaces in names and is case sensitive, what is the
best convention for naming files on Unix web servers?  By "best" I mean
easiest to read, identify, and remember.  We could make filenames all
lowercase to make them easy to remember, but this would make them hard to
read.  We could separate each word with an underscore, e.g., my_home.html,
but this is not a common convention.

It would be a good idea to be consistent with naming conventions often used
in web programming, be they for JavaScript, java, cold fusion, asp, or php,
etc.  Background on other naming conventions:

Writers on JavaScript, Java, & XML describe what's sometimes called the
humpback notation or camel-case capitalization: use lowercase for single
words, e.g., home.html, and uppercase for the second word in a name, e.g.,
myHome.html. According to "JavaScript: The Definitive Guide" by David
Flanagan http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/jscript4/chapter/ch17.html,
"Properties of the HTML-specific interfaces begin with lowercase letters.
If the property name consists of multiple words, the first letters of the
second and subsequent words are capitalized."  Same conventions have been
proposed for XML & its derivative Universal Business Language (UBL), see
http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/ubl/200203/ndrsc/review/draft-ndr-20020
316.pdf or
http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/ubl/ndrsc/drafts/wd-ublndrsc-ndrdoc-12.
pdf
These look like the Internal Capitalization standards described at
http://www.michaelmasumoto.com/tutorials/module01/module0109.html as being
officially decreed by the W3C, though I couldn't find a reference to this
standard at the W3C.

What is the best convention in your opinion & why?

===================== RESPONSES ===========================

Gart, Mitchell [[log in to unmask]]:

If you use a convention like myHome.html, then on a system like
Windows that's case-insensitive, the files myhome.html, myHome.html,
MYHOME.HTML, and so on will all be the same.  It's still possible
to use this convention if you also have a rule to never reuse the
same file name with just differences in the case of the letters.
But this is error-prone.  For example you'll find that you've created
a file named myHome.html and there will be a piece of code somewhere
that will refer to it as myhome.html and that code will work on
Windows but then not work when the server is Unix.

The one I like better is my_home.html.  All letters always lower
case.  Underscores for word separators.  (Using the minus sign,
my-home.html, also works but is slightly hostile to the Unix shell
wildcard conventions, even though it has the advantage that the
minus sign is slightly easier to type than the underscore.)

-------------------------------------------------------

Howard Kiewe [[log in to unmask]]:

The most important thing is to define a convention,
advertise it, and then enforce it. The UNIX
administrators I know prefer all lowercase (because
it's an easy rule to remember) with words separated by
underscores or hyphens. Underscores are more readable
but require that you hold down a shift key when
typing. Studies have shown that sifted characters take
longer to type and are more likely to be typed
incorrectly (see Mayhew, D. J. [1992]. Principles and
Guidelines in Software User Interface Design. Prentice
Hall: New Jersey.). I don't recommend initial capitals
with no spaces because it is harder to read and harder
to type (that shift key again). I know this is
different than most programming language conventions,
but it is what I have seen in the real word of UNIX
server admin.

----------------------------------------------------

Barry Kingsbury [[log in to unmask]]:

There are two conventions that are widely used:

1. Remove the spaces. Each former word begins with a capital letter. For
example:

     RemoveTheSpaces.html

2. Replace the spaces with underscores. For example:

     Remove_the_spaces.html

If prefer (1), but (2) is more readable.

I've seen people advocate using hyphens, but I'm not a fan of that practice:

     Remove-the-spaces.html

But, I don't like it based on antiquated operating system practices. (I
also think spaces in a file name is an error, put I'm out of step with
reality here.)

-------------------------------------------------------

[log in to unmask]:

On 2 Sep 2003 at 8:21, Leslie Carter wrote:
> Since Unix doesn't allow spaces in names and is case sensitive,

The former is not true. There may be reasons to avoid them (there are
some broken programs out there that can't handle them well), but
they're allowed (and always have been).

See
http://www.michael.mendelsohn.de/dir%20space/with%20space.html
http://www.michael.mendelsohn.de/dir space/with space.html
for an example (on a Linux server).

PersonallyIFindCamelCaseReadableEnough.
I_have_problems_with_the_underline_because_it_is_not_as_easy_and_quick
_to_type_and_thus_disrupts_my_typing_flow.

-----------------------------------------------------------

David R. Austen [[log in to unmask]]:

I would recommend a book called "E-What," which deals with this
somewhat tangentially when it discusses the (related) design of labels
for email addresses (not actually case sensitive) and perhaps URLs and
other areas where style and conventions are important for agreements.

This may not be an authoritative work like the Chicago Manual. But it
is as close as many folks creating Web sites will come to discovering
the concept of naming conventions.

-----------------------------------------------------------

Barry Caplan [[log in to unmask]]:

Unix allows spaces in names :) AFIK the only character not available in
file names is the delimiter "/".

That doesn't make them a good idea in URLs, which is what you are really
asking about I think though they do work there also.

---------------------------------------------------------

Laura Reuwee [[log in to unmask]]:

I was suprized to read that using the underscore method of file naming is
not considered a common convention.  In my experience, this is the most
common way of naming files in a unix environment.

    my_file.html

As a programmer/developer, not only do I find this the most appealing to
read in a directory structure, it saves any confusion of whether or not to
use upper case letters.

Usually, the system of using capital letters to designate different words is
used within code, such as defining functions or classes:

    myFunction ( definition )

    SpecialJavaClass ( definition )

Try doing any general search on google and take a look at the file names
that are returned.  Although you will find examples of both, in the majority
of cases files are typed in all lower case.

--------------------------------------------------------------

Barry Caplan [[log in to unmask]]:

>Since Unix doesn't allow spaces in names and is case sensitive, what is the
>best convention for naming files on Unix web servers?

This is the main point from the original question as I understood it. Leslie
was asking only secondarily about Unix file naming conventions, but is
actually more interested in the issue of spaces in URLs (or URIs). She is
making the medium-strong assumption that there is a 1-1 correspondence
between file names on her (UNIX-based ?) web server and the URL/URI.

What I think she is asking but o one has addressed yet is this:

- Is it ok (useable) to have spaces in a URL, will a browser be able to
accept that? (A: yes, within certain limitations)
- If so, will the web server be able to handle it, and do I need to follow
any particular conventions in creating the files on the server to account
for the limitations imposed by the browser. (A: yes, the server can handle
it, and no, no special handling is required in creating the file names on
the server.
- What is the relationship between filenames on the server and in the URI
(A: very loose, see below), and is it safe to assume that useability issues
regarding spaces in names are the same in both places (A: Others might have
more detailed info on this but I would expect they are not strictly the same
due to context)

What I don't think she is asking is how to work with file names on Unix that
have spaces in them via an API or in the shell.

So my suggestion is for Leslie to think about the useablity issues for the
user at the browser and if she is happy with the ability to use spaces, then
do what you have to do at the server end, it is not that big a deal.

OTOH, if the issue is that there are these files on the server that have
spaces in them, and she already knows the useablilty sucks at the browser
for her users, but she can't really change the file names, what can she do?
Details depending on the web server in use, but she can create rules of the
sort "When the browser asks for 'fileWithASpace.html' then really return
'file with a space.html' but don't let the browser know I made the switch".

In apache, mod_rewrite is the place to look to make rules like this. I don't
know about other servers.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
---

Jan Meyer [[log in to unmask]]:

I find that the best reasons to use all lower case are:

        because giving a url over the phone is much easier.

        you do not have to remember capitalization rules. They get
complicated very quickly. Do you capitalize acronyms or just the first
letter? eg tutorialHTML.html or TutorialHtml.html or TutorialHTML.html

        you don't have to worry about how the capitilzation goes when
writing links to the page, just make it all lowercase

    --------------------------------------------------------------
           Tip of the Day: Postings must be in plain text
     CHI-WEB: www.sigchi.org/web POSTINGS: mailto:[log in to unmask]
              MODERATORS: mailto:[log in to unmask]
       SUBSCRIPTION CHANGES & FAQ:  www.sigchi.org/web/faq.html
    --------------------------------------------------------------

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