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CHI-WEB  October 2003, Week 2

CHI-WEB October 2003, Week 2

Subject:

SUMMARY: Visual inspection of accessible menus

From:

"William Hudson (ACM)" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

William Hudson (ACM)

Date:

Tue, 14 Oct 2003 19:03:47 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (442 lines)

Here is the original question, later qualified to explain that
installing software was not an option in this particular scenario.

> Is it practical (for a human being!) to inspect the source 
> for a web page and determine whether the navigation scheme, e.g. 
> menus, will be accessible to assistive technologies such as
> screen readers? If so, any tips on what to look for?

I've had many helpful responses, all listed below. Thanks to those who
replied.

In the situation which raised the enquiry, I am evaluating an intranet
site on a customer's premises. I cannot install specialist software and
may have limited control over browser options. It is a pretty
broad-but-shallow kind of usability evaluation where accessibility is
touched on but not assessed in detail (this is tied up with my "top 5"
accessibility issues posting of a few months back). If I were doing an
evaluation for a public site, I would just use a screen reader.

However, some useful suggestions that I will probably follow up on are
(I was already aware of some of these, but I list them here for
completeness):

- Put mouse out of reach!
- Turn off graphics and JavaScript (if possible)
- Try running web-based (e.g. Bobby) accessibility evaluation on a page
- Take copy of page away and try it on workstation with screen reader
- Inspect HTML (described in detail below)

Regards,

William Hudson
Syntagm Ltd
Design for Usability
US Toll Free 1-866-SYNTAGM
UK 01235-522859
World +44-1235-522859
mailto:[log in to unmask]
http://www.syntagm.co.uk

----------

Do the pages use standards-compliant HTML?

Do they make use of structured elements?

Turn off graphics & JavaScript.

Take out style sheets.

Consider taking pages away or use web-based accessibility evaluation
software.

--

Gerard Torenvliet (by phone)

----------

Here are some things to look for:

  1. Is the user able to tab through the page to access form widgets and
hyperlinks?

  2. Does the non-textual information on the page have text equivalents?

  3. If all the presentational information is removed from the page, is
the content still readable (and understandable)?

W. Jeffrey Rankin [[log in to unmask]]
Lead Web Application Developer


----------

Evaluating from source code alone would require a knowledge of
techniques for accessibity and good web coding skills.  If you have
control over the quality of the source code (ie internal evaluation of a
project) then reviewing source code would be feasable. However if you
are evaluating existing sites then I think visual inspection of the
source code would be unreliable.

You may be able to use some tools. The accessify.com site has a number
of 'favelets' for checking some accessibility requirements (image alt,
link title etc). These are bookmarks that can be added to the browser
toolbar and generate reports for he currently viewed page in a new
window. They tools do however require javascript to function.

http://www.accessify.com/tools-and-wizards/accessibility-checking-favele
ts.asp

Hope you find this helpful.

Regards,
John Hunter [[log in to unmask]]

----------

Yes it is -- any web designer should be able to make that assessment
based on the source of a web page. That said, there is a wide range of
possibilities between 100% accessible and 100% inaccessible.

There are relatively few 100% inaccessible navigation schemes. They are
usually the result of active content, whether Javascript, Flash, or
Java-dependent.

1. Javascript-based navigation are usually found on dynamic
dropdown/flyout menus, pop-up windows, and <select> form elements
(dropdown menus). The former two can be made accessible if an A element
with a valid HREF attribute is present, in addition to the onClick
javascript event. 

If you see a menu or pop-up link with href="#" onClick="page.html" or
href="javascript;", then it's inaccessible. You don't need to view
source, just look at your browser's Status bar.

Relevant article: http://www.evolt.org/article//17/20938/index.html

To make a <select> dropdown accessible, it requires a Submit button. The
onChange event is inaccessible. See
http://www.evolt.org/article//17/28553/index.html

2. Flash-based navigation was completely inaccessible for a long time.
In response to lobbying, Macromedia has been improving the accessibility
of its product. Taking advantage of this, the latest versions of Jaws
can parse Flash-based content. Other screen readers will probably follow
suit.

Flash 6 content can be made accessible in a rudimentary fashion, and
Flash 7 (just released, thus low install base) is far better.
http://www.macromedia.com/macromedia/accessibility/features/flash/

But take some tips from what Macromedia are currently doing on their own
site. Their top menu is Flash 7-based, with maximum accessibility. If
Flash is not detected, a javascript-based alternative is served instead.
In addition to this, the entire navigation (with subnavigation) is
repeated in <noscript> tags in the source. Assistive devices that don't
support javascript or Flash will get this.

In response to your original question, the easiest way to check whether
Flash navigation contains accessibility enhancements, try tabbing
through it with the keyboard. For example macromedia.com and
usabilitynet.org. But most assistive devices will still require an
HTML-based equivalent, e.g. in <noscript> tags.

3. I don't know anything about making Java-based content accessible. But
there's never a reason to use a Java applet just for navigation. (That
doesn't stop some people, though.)

----
In the partial-accessibility cases, consider the following:

4. Frames are sometimes used for navigation. While not 100%
inaccessible, it poses enough accessibility problems that it should be
advised against.

It's easy to recognise when frames are used without viewing the source.

5. Of course, if images are used for menu items, they should have
appropriate ALT attributes. Visible in source.

6. To aid keyboard-navigation through a navigation menu, the elements
need to be arranged in a logical sequence -- press Tab multiple times to
test this. If it isn't, the TABINDEX attribute can be added to A tags to
impose a tab order. Check for this when you view source.

7. The ACCESSKEY attribute is another way to improve the accessibility
of a navigation scheme. Also visible in the source.

8. "Skip navigation" links are sometimes advisable to improve in-page
navigation. You'd usually find it immediately after the BODY tag.

9. Marking up navigation menus as unordered lists (<UL> and <LI> tags)
makes the HTML more structured, and can improve the display on a device
that doesn't support stylesheets. Whether this in fact more accessible
is a hotly-debated issue! I'd say it's of minor concern for you.

Probably more info than you require...

Francois Jordaan [[log in to unmask]]

----------

I often do visual code inspection. My list may not be complete and my
suggestions are not limited to navigation schema. Assuming straight HTML
and/or JavaScript(or other scripting method), I look for:

--A method to "skip navigation" or alternate navigation provisions (it
is tiresome to wade through the navigation over and over) --Meaningful
alt tags for images --Meaningfully named data tables (headers and rows)
and meaningfully named frames (it is preferred to have no frames, but if
you must, give them meaningful names and provide access from frame to
frame) --Event handlers for both keyboard and mouse, if any
--Alternatives for media or graphics (like data tables for charts)
--Proper color use (that is, not conveying information solely by color,
also adequate contrast) --No override of the users' choice of font size
or other accessibility settings --Proper use of images (as in no
animations) 
--No use of blink tags or flashing items of any type
--Applets and scripting still work like GUIs should, with complete
keyboard access. --If a system or page must time out, it offers a chance
to extend the time needed (for those for whom use takes longer than
average).  Example:  "This page will expire in 30 seconds.  Do you need
more time? Yes/No"

and so on. 

Using a PC?  Most PCs now have built in accessibility features. Try
unplugging your mouse and operate the page.  Change your display to high
contrast.  Make your sticky keys operate (hit SHIFT five times.) Try
using the magnifier.  (Start > Programs > Accessories > Accessibility >
Magnifier.)

Hope this helps. Good luck.

Josephine Scott [[log in to unmask]]
Usability Specialist
Compuware Corporation

----------

I think it would depend very much on the source code and the inspector's
familiarity with HTML.

A better method may be to:

a) View pages in a text browser. This will give an idea of how a screen
would be read by a screenreader, but will not take into account the
layout.
(http://lynx.browser.org/)


b) View pages in the browser with images turned off. This will show the
ALT attributes for images, but will still apply layout, style and tab
order. (IE - Windows: Tools > Internet Options > Advanced > Show
Pictures)


Ideally you should test with a screenreader. These often work with the
users existing browser so the interaction may not be obvious. I have
tested with JAWS for windows and Internet Explorer. While I am a very
inexperienced JAWS user it is still a useful way to evaluate. The vendor
<http://www.freedomscientific.com/> do offer a demo version that can be
used within 15 minutes of starting your PC, or you can purchase the full
version. There are other screenreaders out there although JAWS seems to
be the most popular (see: Nielsen, 2002, Beyond ALT Text:Making the Web
Easy to Use for Users with Disabilities)


Regards.

John Hunter [[log in to unmask]]

----------

In my experience, no.  Testing/evaluating using a screen reader (e.g., 
JAWS) will determine the accessbility.

I suppose a curiuos human could look at the source to determine if 
accessibility impediments such as nested tables or some funky CSS/DHTML 
elements are present, but again, the screen reader is going to fetter
all 
that out anyway.

Best,
Elizabeth McLachlan [[log in to unmask]]

----------

William, in my experience inspecting the source code is the best way 
to determine accessibility.

Assistive technologies are diverse in nature and capability; and 
Webmasters are typically unskilled at using them. That means testing 
on all possible assistive devices and with all versions of software 
(and doing so effectively) is at best impractical. So even though I 
can run a free version of JAWS and check pages myself, that doesn't 
mean I know how to use JAWS (it's a bear) or that a user with 
WindowEyes or a Sip and Puff device would find the same page 
accessible.

Using site "checkers" like Bobby, Cynthia, LIFT, or WAVE will point 
out errors of non-compliance and potential errors of non-compliance 
that need to be addressed. They require the Webmaster to check 
specific points in the code, but they don't make value judgements, 
and do make errors.

To me, best practice is to be aware of standards (W3C-WAI and 508) 
and code with them in mind. Hopefully, creators of assistive devices 
are trying to meet the same guidelines. Monitor the lists that 
discuss accessibility to follow how people regularly using assistive 
devices feel about specific standards and standard implementation; 
that way you can stay ahead of standards- aiming for accessible, 
rather than compliant.

Keep in mind that "accessible" can mean large buttons for users with 
motor disfunction, text links for users with visual impairment, and 
simple graphical images for users with cognitive disorders. And 
speaking of cognitive dysfunction- someone with dyslexia wouldn't 
necessarily be using assistive technology, so using assistive devices 
as the only consideration makes designers come up a bit shy of the 
mark.

Human beings are imperfect, but in the doing, learn to get better.

David R. Stong [[log in to unmask]]

----------

Do these indications have to be in the source (as in code)? Or are you
looking at visual/aural indicators for identifying accessibility
features? 

I believe screen readers will automatically pick up ALT and TITLE text
from images and other media. Not 100% sure how it handles TITLE for text
links.

For menus it is a convention to underline the Access key (at least on
windows) so that you can use ALT + Letter to access the menu. I've seen
this convention being used on the web lately and it was very intuitive
for me.

If you want to figure this out in the source code, I reckon commenting
would be the best way.

HTH
Navneet

Navneet Nair [[log in to unmask]]
Interaction Architect

----------

Interesting question.  No, seeing only the source code will not tell you
everything.  Just as seeing only the web page itself will not tell you
everything.  

For example:

If there is a reference to longdesc, it must be reviewed and vetted.

If a multimedia file link is made available, that file must be reviewed.
Does the (or, is there a) transcript match and is it appropriate?

How will the removal of style sheets affect the layout if turned off? 
There's always something that will trigger an odd layout.  That may or
may not be able to be predicted with review of CSS guidelines.

If there is a file that can be downloaded, that file would have to be
inspected to ensure that the PDF version is accessible.  A follow-up
suggestion might recommend that alternate file formats be made
available.

I always test for active links.  That can't be ascertained just by
reviewing codes (at least for external links).

There's always an element of usability that needs to be considered, too.
You need to interact with the page to see what elements need refined.

My 2-p.

Regards,
Beth Martin [[log in to unmask]]

----------

I use an old version of Lynx to view all sites (the newer version
interprets JavaScript for some reason!). I have found this to be the
closest (but not
perfect) way of ascertaining accessibility, short of donning a blindfold
and using a screen reader.

HTH

Regards,

Alex [[log in to unmask]]
______________
Alex Horstmann
Web Designer
DeCare Systems Ireland

----------

Some things are in a grey area that work with some technologies and not
with others, but there are some general rules of thumb:

- If it works in text browser Lynx it should work in most things. (That
only really leaves JavaScript that could interfere with other
technologies.)

- The main links should have a proper href, i.e. <a
href="real_page.html">Page 1</a> Not <a href="#"
onclick="javascript:redirect()">Page 1</a>

- With a JavaScript pop-out style menu, it isn't necessary for the
pop-outs to be accessible assuming that the main link goes through to a
page with the relevant links included.

- With drop-down style menus, they need a go button, otherwise screen
reader users can only choose the first link!

That's all I can think of off hand, but if it passes those, it should be
accessible... although not necessarily usable.

---
-Alastair Campbell [[log in to unmask]]

----------

    The best way to check for accessibility would be to try a Web page 
out yourself with a screen reader. Similar to user testing being the 
best method for finding usability issues, testing for accessibility 
issues is best done by using a screen reader yourself to try out your 
Web pages and see in better approximation what your users see.  
You can download a trial version of JAWS from their Web site 
(http://www.freedomscientific.com/fs_downloads/jaws.asp) and use it for 
40 minutes at a time.  After 40 minutes all you need to do is restart 
your computer and you can use it for another 40 minutes.  
    When testing Web sites for accessibility, we have used the attached 
manual we wrote to help us remember JAWS key commands.
    We're developing some training here at the University of Minnesota 
to help people learn how to check their sites for accessibility, so I'd 
be interesting in hearing what method you choose for accessibility 
verification and what challenges or questions you come across if you do 
use my suggestion.
Good luck! :)
-Nicole

-- 
Nicole Tollefson [[log in to unmask]]
Usability Consultant, Usability Services
Web Development, University of Minnesota

    --------------------------------------------------------------
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