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CHI-WEB  February 2004, Week 2

CHI-WEB February 2004, Week 2

Subject:

SUMMARY: Computer / Web literacy levels and terminology

From:

Sarah Waterson <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Sun, 8 Feb 2004 21:25:27 -0800

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (239 lines)

Hello,

Here's the few responses I got to an inquiry about computer & web literacy
levels that I sent out a couple of weeks ago. I was interested in the
taxonomy / classification of users on computer and web literacy levels. I'm
working on a project that is designing mini-apps/powerful widgets that will
be used by a variety of different business applications, in a variety of
domains, and with many different types of end users. I'm trying to create
some sort of "user-type" framework to think about the users outside of a
domain or specific application. The thought is that this framework will help
me identify the types of participants I may want to recruit for testing.

The basic "summary" is that folks use a few key axes or dimensions, such as
task/domain knowledge, application knowledge, computer knowledge, and
frequency of use to help understand the space of potential users. In the
project I'm working on, we've used these dimensions, as well as a few others
more specific to the products, to create a set of generic user types which
we plan to use in recruiting usability test participants for tests of our
mini-apps/power-widgets.

I received two responses and have included the email exchanges below.
(Thanks Jeff and Kristen!) If anybody has any more thoughts on this topic,
please drop me a line!

Cheers,
Sarah

----------------
Original Posting
----------------
Hello,

I've been googling around for some terminlogy and classifications for both
web and computer literacy levels, but haven't had much luck. I'm interested
in the
different ways designers and usability professionals describe how web and
computer savvy their target audience/end-users are.

Also, if anybody knows of any good studies or resources on this topic, I'd
love to know about it. I'm sure there have been various assessments of
computer and
web literacy that have done classifications along these lines; I'm just not
sure
where to start looking for those.

I'd be more than happy to summarize the responses I receive for the list.

Thanks in advance!

Cheers,
Sarah

---------------------------
Exchange with Jeff Johnson:
---------------------------
When I teach classes on UI design, I try to debunk the common developer
assumption that users fall along a single linear dimension from "naive
users" to "computer experts".  In determining the suitability of a design
for a set of users, at least three dimensions of knowledge are relevant:

1. Task-domain knowledge:  How much they know about the task that the
software is designed to support (e.g., accounting).
2. General computer knowledge:  How much they know about computer
technology.
3. Knowledge of the specific application:  How much experience they have
with using the particular application, how much they've benefited from that
experience.

People can be high or low on any of these scales independent of their
position on the other scales.  Therefore, one can have situations such as
the following:
- Long-time C programmer who doesn't know how to program his VCR.
- Experienced Unix hacker struggles with Microsoft Word while an office
secretary who has never even heard of Unix handles Word with ease.
- Computer novices and experts alike get lost in an on-line travel-agency's
website.
- Programmer with no accounting experience has trouble learning to use
accounting software, while an experienced accountant with no programming
experience learns it easily, or vice-versa

Much of what passes for "computer literacy" education in schools is actually
application training.

Jeff Johnson, Ph.D.
UI Wizards, Inc.
Product Usability Consulting
www.uiwizards.com
www.web-bloopers.com

-----

Hi Jeff,

Thanks for your response. I agree that there isn't a single linear dimension
to describe computer and web skills and experience. I'm interested in seeing
these different axes people find important to define skill levels, and, on a
generic/abstract level (not with a specific product in mind) how they label
and group the different combinations.

For example, maybe somebody that has a very high domain knowledge, but uses
the application only very infrequently and subsequently low knowledge of how
to use it, but is a quite competent with a computer. What would you call
that sort of person?

Some folks use terms like, "power-user" or "casual-user" but those don't
seem descriptive enough. The reason I'm searching for vocabulary is that I'm
working on a project that is designing mini-apps/powerful widgets that will
be used by a variety of different applications, in a variety of domains, and
with many different users. I'm trying to have some sort of "user-type"
framework to think about the users outside of a domain or specific
application, which then might help me identify the types of participants I
may want to recruit when I do test the mini-apps inside an application and
domain.

I'm not sure that makes sense :) or if it's going to be useful, but if you
have any other thoughts, please share!

Thanks again for your response,
Cheers,
Sarah

----

>  For example, maybe somebody that has a very high domain knowledge, but
uses
>  the application only very infrequently and subsequently low
>knowledge of how to
>  use it, but is a quite competent with a computer. What would you
>call that sort of person?

I would call them "task-domain experts".


>  Some folks use terms like, "power-user" or "casual-user" but those
>don't seem descriptive enough.

Agreed.


>  The reason I'm searching for vocabulary is that I'm working on a
>project that is designing
>  mini-apps/powerful widgets that will be used by a variety of
>different applications, in a
>  variety of domains, and with many different users. I'm trying to
>have some sort of
>  "user-type" framework to think about the users outside of a domain
>or specific
>  application, which then might help me identify the types of
>participants I may want to
>  recruit when I do test the mini-apps inside an application and domain.

Interesting.  The original commercial GUI product -- the Xerox Star
-- embodied that idea:  that there are mini-apps (which Star called
software "services") that plug in to whatever desktop apps need them.
Examples of services included text editor, graphics editor, table
editor, spreadsheet.  See Johnson, Roberts, Verplank, Smith, Irby,
Beard, and Mackey, "The Xerox Star: A Retrospective", IEEE Computer,
September, 1989, pages 11-29.
http://www.digibarn.com/friends/curbow/star/retrospect/.

Much later, colleagues and I at HP Labs developed a prototype
Application Construction Environment (ACE) that included high-level
components called "visual formalisms" that could be included and
connected to build applications.  We invented a term: "local
developer" for people we observed in workplaces who aren't
programmers but know enough about computers to serve as resources for
their less-computer-savvy colleagues: setting up spreadsheets,
installing software, solving problems, creating document templates,
etc.   See Johnson, Nardi, Zarmer, and Miller, "ACE: A New Approach
to Building Interactive Graphical Applications", Communications of
the ACM, April 1993, pages 41-55. [Also published as HP Labs
Technical Report HPL-92-126,
http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/92/HPL-92-126.html ]



------------------------------
Exchange with Kristen Robinson
------------------------------
Hi Sarah,

This may be more basic than what you're looking for, but more than one of my
professors in the MS HFID program at Bentley has used three classifications:
novice, intermittent (aka perpetual novice) and expert/experienced. A novice
is someone who has never used a product before or is just starting.
Intermittent users are infrequent users, so they often need to relearn the
product, although they may have worked with it off and on for a long time.
Experts work with the product all the time.

Now that so many people have been using computers for a long time, I think
it's more useful to measure frequency of use than length of use. In other
words, how many hours per week or per month do you use this product, as
opposed to how many months or years have you been a user. The first type of
measurement gets at the distinction between intermittent and experienced
users better, although you may need the latter measurement to find out who
is a novice.

--Kirsten Robinson

Hi Kirstin,

Thanks for your reply! I agree with your comments on frequency of use. some
of the other axes I've been thinking are important are the task domain
knowledge, application expertise, computer literacy and web literacy
(basically, your knowledge of how the web and/or computer function and your
familiarity with the common metaphors). I'm looking at those different axes
and thinking about the different combinations. For example, somebody who has
a high task domain knowledge (say in tax law or something, rarely uses the
computer or the web, but has a basic knowledge of how the web and computers
operate and the metaphors used (drag and drop, file structures, etc.). He or
she would be very different than somebody who has a low domain knowledge
(say, some data entry clerks don't necessarily need to know alot about the
data they enter), uses a very specific application day in and day out, but
might not really know a lot about the web or how computers store
information. I'm wondering if I can come up with good terms for these
different combinations of people... any thoughts?

Thanks again!

Cheers,
Sarah

Hmmmm... Sounds like you almost need a 3-D graph, where you could represent
domain knowledge, application knowledge, and technology literacy on the
three axes. Then you could just give each of the eight areas a label and
place the user in one of the eight... The labels could just be letters, if
no one comes up with clever ideas for naming them. Or you could make up
acronyms like DH-AL-TM for "domain - high, application - low, technology -
medium". Not very usable or clever, I'm afraid!

--Kirsten

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