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CHI-WEB  September 2004, Week 4

CHI-WEB September 2004, Week 4

Subject:

SUMMARY: Web color schemes for night/low ambient light conditions

From:

Jeff Rankin <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Jeff Rankin <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 23 Sep 2004 11:16:29 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (209 lines)

Hello:

I would like to thank everyone for responding to my request for
information about web color schemes for night/low ambient light
conditions. My original email and the responses are shown below. I've
also included some notes and references we've found based on the
responses.


=====================================================
Original Email


 From: ACM SIGCHI WWW Human Factors (Open Discussion)
 [[log in to unmask]] on behalf of Jeff Rankin [[log in to unmask]]
 Sent: Thursday, September 16, 2004 8:06 AM
 To: [log in to unmask]
 Subject: C+S: Web color schemes for night/low ambient light conditions

Hello!

We have a web application that will be used at night or in low ambient
light conditions. The application will be used from a laptop or a
similar device with an LCD display. What are some of the considerations
with regard to color schemes and readability for such conditions? For
example, do such conditions favor the use of dark background with white
text? Are there special considerations for LCD displays versus CRTs?

Please send responses to me and I will summarize for the list. Thank
you!


=====================================================
Responses


 From: [log in to unmask]
 Sent: Thursday, September 16, 2004 1:32 PM
 To: Jeff Rankin
 Subject: Re: C+S: Web color schemes for night/low ambient light
conditions

Hi Jeff, Some considerations I have noticed are:

1. Brightness - In low ambient light, white background from an emittive
source (as opposed to a reflective source - a book for example) hurts
the eyes. Lowering brightness or inverting colors as you indicate helps.

2. LCDs vs. CRTs - The angle of view is the big difference in my
opinion. CRTs don't have this issue - things look the same
color/contrast/brightness now matter what angle you view it at. LCDs
have varying ranges of angle of view where the visual difference is
negligible, though always lower than that for CRTs. If the screen will
be viewed from the sides and not face on, you will have view/perception
issues. This becomes more acute as you turn the brightness down.

3. Given the difference between LCDs and CRTs, paler colors have lower
recognizability on LCDs. Saturation needs to be higher on LCDs for
colors to be effective. Example #FFFFE5 would be almost impossible to
notice on an LCD while it sometimes is useful in toning down the
brightness and differentiating areas gently on a CRT when used on
bounded backgrounds.

4. In visual design, depending on viewing distance, fonts have to be
bigger than a certain size. You probably don't want to go less than the
equivalent of Arial 8pt. At smaller sizes, it will be better to have
anti-aliasing turned off if possible, but you probably already know
this.

Hope this helps. I'll be interested in reading other responses you get.


 From: Singletary, Mark [[log in to unmask]]
 Sent: Thursday, September 16, 2004 2:00 PM
 To: Jeff Rankin
 Subject: RE: Web color schemes for night/low ambient light conditions

Jeff,

Then you should build your pages like we build night scopes , and gages
for fighters:

    * Stay away from the blue green end of the spectrum.
    * Warm yellow or deep red text on black.
    * Eliminate background fills, and put text on black backgrounds.
    * Keep inidcator panels, like red, green, yellow lights etc if
necessary small, and dim them down.
    * Use BOLD pattern rather that color for indicators ( clear,
barber-pole, Check off, X off etc)


 From: [log in to unmask]
 Sent: Thursday, September 16, 2004 2:03 PM
 To: Jeff Rankin
 Subject: Re: C+S: Web color schemes for night/low ambient light
 conditions

Jeff,

Black type with minimum font size around 11 or 12 pts. Plenty of white
space.


 From: Richard Penn [[log in to unmask]]
 Sent: Thursday, September 16, 2004 2:14 PM
 To: Jeff Rankin
 Subject: Re: Web color schemes for night/low ambient light conditions

Hi Jeff,

I don't have data, but it's generally understood in the amateur
astronomy world that a red-on-black display with a low adjustable
brightness level is best to preserve night vision. Talking to military
folks, the situation is different in cases where night vision goggles
are employed in the area. Because they are sensitive to infra-red light,
the use of read should be avoided, and displays are usually green on
black. Again, a brightness control is essential, becuase the level of
light may vary by orders of magnitude, in situations which look the same
to the adapted eye.


 From: Spooner, Daniel J [[log in to unmask]]
 Sent: Thursday, September 16, 2004 4:17 PM
 To: Jeff Rankin
 Subject: RE: Web color schemes for night/low ambient light conditions

Jeff - You should look at the International Maritime Organization and
the US Cost Guard requirements for night color schemes of navigation
displays for maritime operations. These are well established standards.
White, yellow and other bright colors are not used much at all in night
light situations.


 From: Gino Lardon [[log in to unmask]]
 Sent: Friday, September 17, 2004 7:36 AM
 To: Jeff Rankin
 Subject: RE: Web color schemes for night/low ambient light conditions

There is no better option then black on a white background. Go for the
highest contrast possible when you need to use colors.

Be careful with white on a black background. A dark background can
reflect light that is used in the room.


 From: Karen Whitley [[log in to unmask]]
 Sent: Saturday, September 18, 2004 9:51 PM
 To: Jeff Rankin
 Subject: RE: C+S: Web color schemes for night/low ambient light
conditions

Hi, I don't have any research to back up my suggestions, but I
frequently use a laptop with a LCD display in low-light or dark
conditions.

High contrast such as black background with white text causes eye
fatigue. If users will be reading text, I suggest a soft background
(very pale blue or gray) with black text.

Overall, I would limit the number of total colors used. For navigation,
I would stick with navy blue buttons with white or pale gray text.
Shades of blue seem to be easy on the eyes.

You may want to consider color-blind users and do some online research
on accessible color schemes.


=====================================================
Additional Information


ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems) requirements
contain information on 5 color palettes used in various conditions
including dusk and night. Each palette describes a scheme of 64 colors
and RGB values.

        See "Fowler, David. 1999. Great Lakes ECDIS Sea Trials - Final
Report. Canadian Hydrographic
        13 Service, Central and Arctic Region, Burlington, Ontario,
Canada. 60pp."

The IHO Colours and Symbols Specifications also describes 5 color
palettes.

        See "IHO Specification for Chart Content and Display of ECDIS,
IHO Special Publication No. 52
        (IHO S-52), 4th Edition, December 1996, Monaco."

We've found example applications of night color schemes in astronomy
software like KStars (http://edu.kde.org/kstars/), and in some handheld
device apps (e.g. Palm Pilots, GPS).

Thanks -

W. Jeffrey Rankin
Lead Web Application Developer

O'NEIL & ASSOCIATES, INC. http://www.oneil.com
495 Byers Rd.
Miamisburg, Ohio 45342-3662
Phone: (937) 865-0846 ext. 3504
Fax: (937) 865-5858
E-mail: [log in to unmask]



Confidentiality Notice
The information contained in this e-mail is confidential and intended for use only by the person(s) or organization listed in the address. If you have received this communication in error, please contact the sender at O'Neil & Associates, Inc., immediately. Any copying, dissemination, or distribution of this communication, other than by the intended recipient, is strictly prohibited.

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