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CHI-WEB  September 2004, Week 4

CHI-WEB September 2004, Week 4

Subject:

SUMMARY: Opening new windows to keep users in a site

From:

Dey Alexander <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Dey Alexander <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 25 Sep 2004 17:37:37 +1000

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (311 lines)

Thanks so much to everyone who replied to my request for research or
observations about the effectiveness/effect on users of opening new
browser windows as a strategy for holding users within a site. I
really appreciate you taking the time to respond.

My original post appears at the end of this message. List members'
responses appear below.

SUMMARY
------------------
A range of views were offered in the replies including:

* opening new windows is not OK (some mentioned accessibility
concerns, others mentioned usability concerns)

* opening new windows is OK in certain situations. There was a bit of
variation in views about which situations justify opening a new
window.  Most thought opening a new window for a contact form was not
warranted, some mentioned usability reasons for opening a PDF in a new
window, and others said that opening external links in new windows was
common, but usually a business, rather that user, requirement.

* it is best if the window is announced and does not completely
obscure  the originating window

* some mentioned the potential for user confusion when new windows are
opened unless they were warned of this in advance

Some referred to articles/opinion pieces online.  Here are a few links:

A farewell to pop-ups
<http://www.usabilitynews.com/news/article1673.asp>

Launching new and pop-up windows
<http://www.7nights.com/dkrprod/gwt_ten.php>

Not opening new windows
<http://diveintoaccessibility.org/day_16_not_opening_new_windows.html>

On spawned windows
<http://www.uiaccess.com/spawned.html>

Opening links in a new window
<http://juicystudio.com/new-windows/>

The perfect pop-up
<http://www.sitepoint.com/article/955?SID=d68aec23997b791ffceac5e4c793ff72>

Why pop-ups are pop-bad
<http://www.webpronews.com/webdevelopment/sitedesign/wpn-26-20030723WhyPopUpsarePopBad.html>

LIST MEMBER RESPONSES
--------------------------------------------

Caroline Jarrett
----------------------
I wrote a short article that sums up my views on this topic and may be
helpful in your discussions. It's based on a mixture of research and
observation.

"A Farewell to Pop-ups"
http://www.usabilitynews.com/news/article1673.asp

Laura Carlson
--------------------
Some references:
http://www.d.umn.edu/goto/usability#popups

The usual concerns:
Although most users are familiar with the idea of closing external
windows, some users will be confused. Some people with cognitive
disabilities fit this description. Changing the current window or
popping up new windows can be very disorienting to users who cannot
see that this has happened.

Most users of assistive technology prefer not having to deal with
multiple browser windows, especially unannounced ones.  It's a spatial
orientation issue.  Keeping focus on multiple windows is often
problematic for people with visual impairments.  Finally, alternative
user agents may not support multiple screen windows, and/or older
machines may experience a performance hit if running multiple browser
windows.

If a client insists on having a link open in a new window, explicitly
warn the user with a clear indication that the page will open in a
different window. Also it is a good idea to provide a title attribute
with a description indicating that the link opens a new window.

Joe Leech
----------------
This is of course an accessibility no-no.  No links should spawn new windows!

J Stanley
--------------
It's ironic that the client thinks opening a new window for an
external link will keep the user on their site.  From what I've seen,
after a new window is opened, users who want to go back can't figure
out how to because their back button doesn't want to comply with their
repeated clicks on it!

Ralph Lord
----------
My experience has been that opening child windows is appropriate and
not confusing for users when

1. the new window is set at less than full-screen so the original
window is  visible below
2. external links are preceded by a "bridge" window explaining that
the user is leaving the site (and often the phrase "opens in new
window" next to the link is good)

External and PDF downloads are OK in my experience, but I think the
"contact us" should be just a page within the original window.  The
way to make a child  window work for contact us is to think of it as a
popup and have it open a  really small windown right next to the
contact us link/button so it's obvious  what happened.

The main danger of child windows is just that users lose their place.

Jon Ashley
----------------
I generally recommend that clients open up PDF documents in a new
window for a number of reasons.
* Some cases warrant being able to view the PDF content while still
navigating the site
* I've observed usability test participants that were confused by the
loss of navigation (yes, they found the "Back" button, but the PDF
content was divorced from the site content).
* The Adobe plug-in has such overt controls separate from the browser
that treating the opened window (sans browser controls) as a shell for
 the Adobe "browser" appears to give visitors a better chance of
finding/using the PDF controls (ie. Save and Print).

External Web site links opening in new windows is usually a business
consideration, not a user-centered one. ("Well, I don't mind referring
them to that site, but I don't want them to be 'gone'!"- typical
client)

I do not understand why a "Contact Form" would NEED to be opened up in
a new window as, presumably, the page is to contact someone associated
with the site, design of the page is under the site's control, etc.
There is little advantage and plenty of potential downside.

Kathy E Gill
------------------
I believe #3 is a function of how the browser/acrobat are configured.
I have some combos (Firefox) that always open a new window and then
the PDF; I have others (MSIE) that always open in window.

When I worked on a project for SAFECO, a major insurance company, we
followed their styleguide, which to use an "external link" icon to
indicate a) it's external and b) it's gonna open a new window.
Granted, this was an intranet, but having the icon (along with some
others) used across the company meant no confusion.

Of the three, I believe #2 is the  hardest to justify.

Jeff Johnson
-------------------
- My book GUI Bloopers, in its Web Bloopers chapter, has Blooper 61:
Links That Don't Provide Enough Information (page 353).  This blooper
is about links that are not marked to indicate various things users
should know: a) whether they've already visited the link, b) whether
the link goes to a new page or to an anchor point on the same page,
and c) whether the link opens a new browser.  Regarding (c), I've seen
Web users become very disoriented when a link opens a new browser
window that covers the old browser window:  they often don't notice
that a new window has opened.  In that situation, after browsing in
the new window for a while, the user often tries to back up to where
they started, but can't because the Back button goes gray at the page
first displayed in that window.  It can take a while for
the user to realize that the original browser window is behind the new
one, and less sophisticated Web users may never realize this.

Therefore, links that open a new browser window should be marked,
either individually or as a group.  I do this on my own site, usually
by simply saying "Opens new browser".  Web guru Vincent Flanders
(author of Web Pages That Suck) also recommends this.  Ideally, in
addition to marking links, the new window should be displaced from, or
smaller in size than, the old window.  But that can't be done with
plain HTML; it requires a bit of Javascript.

- Having said the above, there is an emerging convention on the Web
that off-site links display in a new browser window.  I use that
convention on my own site.  I think it would be wonderful if there
were a common symbol for marking links that open a new browser
window.  Some individual websites have created such symbols (e.g.,
arrow pointing up and right; or arrow pointing to small box), but no
such symbol has become widespread.  Unfortunately, I can't remember
any examples right now.  Maybe another CHI-Web member will know of
examples.

- Regarding opening new browser windows for Contact Us forms, there is
no convention for this, but popping up a form window seems reasonable,
as long as it is smaller than the main browser window. It perhaps
should also be a "kiosk" window, i.e., browser controls
removed.

- Regarding opening new browser windows for displaying PDFs:  I find
it annoying when PDFs open in the same browser window, not because I
lose the original page, but rather because I often fail to notice that
the link is to a PDF, and my computer takes almost a *minute* to open
a PDF, and while doing so blocks me from doing anything else.  I
would prefer for PDFs to open neither in the same browser window nor
in a new browser window, but rather in a plain Acrobat Reader window,
as if I'd opened a PDF document on my desktop.  For a commercial
website that is very annoying in its use of PDFs, mainly because many
of its pages are PDFs but few are marked as such, see
http://www.ausinfo.com.

- Finally, regarding retaining users, opening new browsers is
certainly one way, as long as the new window doesn't totally obscure
the old one (see above).  But another way some sites retain users is
by opening external windows in a frame, leaving portions of their own
site in the window.  I don't recommend doing that, but it it's not  uncommon.

Steve Roberts
--------------------
So far opening in a new window is not posing a problem for us
providing  the window is opened as non-maximised.

Having said that there must be an indicator that the link will launch
a  new window.  We are following concepts as shown in webaim.org and
NILS

Providing a clear "Close Window" button also helps, just in case the
user maximises.  I find that majority of our users are in the habit of
double clicking on the close window icon and thus if they have
maximised a second window then they end up closing both.  A close
window button at the bottom of whatever the screen content is saves
the user moving their mouse to top of screen to select the close icon.

Pete McNally
--------------------
I know the concerns regarding opening a new window.  I think in many
cases  you are correct that user confusion may occur, however I think
in some the  cases your client has mentioned the benefits of a second
window outweigh  any potential user confusion.  My rule of thumb is
open a new window if  the content is secondary to the task at hand.

- Definitely for external links/page I would recommend opening a new
browser  window.  If not the user has just "lost" the original web
site's content.   Yes they have the Back button, but they can easily
start clicking around on  the new site and not be able to get back.

- Contact US, I would keep on the same window, since to me this seems
like  part of the original site

- PDF forms I guess since this is opening up in a different app (Adobe
Reader)  you have no choice.  I know PDFs can be opened in a browser,
but the user gets  different controls and loses any global navigation.

- Another example of page that should open in a new window is help
content. This is important because the user would need to reference
the help content while viewing the original content.

Kuso Mendokusee
---------------
> 3.  PDF downloads
For sake, MSIE could be configured to open any PDF, DOC & other
office-like files thru embedding itself. Closing such "Acrobat in
Explorer" causes unwanted leaving from website if opened in only
browsing window.

Alexis Chontos
----------------------
I have no references to offer ... just years of experience and
observation.  I *ALWAYS* link external sites via a new window (you
never want to take the user away from your site).  Likewise, I would
do the same for a PDF download (people routinely close a PDF page by
clicking the "x", and then would become very annoyed if they find that
they've closed the entire site due to wishing to close the PDF
window).  And, including the contact form as a new window sounds like
a good idea, too.

Normally I would not necessarily say it, but in this instance I'd
advise you to listen to your client.  He / She is right!

Karen Vines
------------------
I was taught that the convention was to open new windows when you go
to  an external site.  Personally, I like this.  Often when I am
on-line I don't  pay attention to the number of windows I have open or
the status of the  navigation arrows so if a new page is not opened I
often exit the site  unintentionally by closing the current window
when I should have used the back arrow.

Dan Chamberlin
-----------------------
We have been using the same strategy for ancillary or supporting
documentation and web links on our Intranet and Internet for about two
years . User acceptance is high. Sun has some good research on user
preference for "windowing".

ORIGINAL POST
------------------------
A client has asked us to open new windows on three types of links:
1.  External website links
2.  Contact us forms
3.  PDF downloads

The client believes this will "ensure retention of our customers
within our website".

I am concerned this strategy may not have the desired effect, but
before I put the usual concerns (potential for user
confusion/annoyance, etc.) to the client, I would like to hear of any
research (references would be excellent) or observations from user
studies about user reactions/behaviour in reponse to opening new
windows.

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January 1997, Week 5

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