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CHI-WEB  August 1999, Week 4

CHI-WEB August 1999, Week 4

Subject:

why metaphors aren't bad but bad metaphors are

From:

Bill Dehora <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Bill Dehora <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 22 Aug 1999 01:37:56 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (123 lines)

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I want to take up on this metaphor issue again. It seems that there is an underlying
assumption that metaphor is in itself either a good or bad thing, which does not
seem to be a useful way to think about the issue.

Since the base hardware/electronic activity of a computer doesn't make
any kind of useful sense, ie the mappings are less that obvious, we
find ourselves with a descriptive void to fill and the mappings may well
become a bit arbitrary. Perhaps this is why metaphor is highly visible in HCI's.

Arguments about the problems arising from bad metaphor are
correct  but there does seem to be a limit with what one can do without
metaphor in computer interfaces, since almost everything in GUI's are
metaphorical: we have 'mail, 'files', buttons', 'folders', 'web'+'pages', ad naseum,
and we haven't even started on the visual metaphors. At the programming level,
metaphors also abound: my pet bad, bad, bad, metaphor is 'bug', as it disavows
responsibility for human coding errors.

Metaphor is everywhere. Semioticists, lingusitic philosphers, and
advertisers now realise we can map pretty well anything to anything.
The metaphors may be cultural, but the process is probably cognitively
built-in.


Don Norman said:

"Example.  My company is designing a commercial website for classes.  Oracle
provides a shopping cart tool.  Shopping cart for classes?  The mind boggles
at the thought of a course in a shopping cart.

Hmm, just think of the mental images the very thought generates. Textbooks
and readings fit in the basket, but the streaming videos are, well,
streaming over the sides.  The instructor is crouched down, all cramped
trying to fit in the basket. The delivery of daily Wall St journal articles
keep fluttering down from above, some missing the cart altogether."



This is extreme. Perhaps we should worry about users confusing
computer files with nail files. Maybe people are wondering how exactly do they
fit all that stuff into such a tiny cart? Or indeed, people are perhaps wondering
why don't they show the horses in the picture since carts are pulled by horses?
Will the mouse eat my sandwich?

Ambiguity is inevitable, it cannot be completely designed away.

In Don's case the problem seemed to be that shopping carts are a bad metaphor
for his problem domain. He deserves credit for identifying the falsity in that case,
in the same way a product designer deserves credit for identifying a poor choice
of plastic. Damning all metaphor as a result is a leap, a bit like killing the
messenger, or concluding that all plastics are bad.

What are talking about here when we say metaphor? Take the shopping
cart. Are we objecting to its visual representation as an icon, or to
the mapping of the function analogous to physical shopping carts, or
both. What happens for example if we leave the image in and change the
text to 'your selections'? What happens if we rip out the image
entirely and replace it with pure text?  Ultimately All that happens is you
replace one set of metaphors for another.

If you can't imagine a good metaphor, consider this: a student once
redesigned the hairdryer, because he disliked the fact that they all
looked like pistols and felt that was an inappropriate metaphor for a
shape that you point at your head. Instead he changed the shape from a
gun to a traditional oriental fan and produced a hairdryer based on
that visual metaphor. You waved it like a fan as the air came out; it was
also easier on the wrist for self-use. To me that's replacing bad
metaphor with an acceptable and elegant use of metaphor. I would be
interested to hear a) why the new metaphor is bad and b) what a metaphor
free hairdryer might look like.


Don Norman also said:

"keep away from metaphor. Keep away from cuteness."



Cuteness fine. It's not possible to avoid metaphor in interface design. This
is analogous to designers removing all colours from their pallette and then
arguing that black white and gray aren't colours. Colour exists and is something
you have to live with and design in the presence of. It can't be made to go
away. Much the same is true of metaphor.

I think the cleansing of metaphor implies an axiomatic value
free interface or library of metaphor-free widgets or something equally
vacuous, which doesn't really exist, but would be a good basis for satire.

In this sense it would be a shame to have to repeat the learning process made
by so many other disciplines in this century from physics to philosophy to the arts:
nothing comes value free.

We might instead argue that a computer interface is largely a metaphor
and the job is produce the most appropriate one(s). Take it as a
design constraint the same way engineers accept gravity.

If it still bothers you, remove the word metaphor from your design
thinking and replace it with 'representation', which is a better
metaphor for what we are trying to do when designing these interfaces
anyway.

Instead of trying to get rid of metaphor, which I suggest is impossible, why
not try here, on this group, to develop useful guidelines or axioms for using
them in a benficial way?


Regards,

Bill de hÓra                  [log in to unmask]

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