>> There are lots of syntatical issues about switching from Pascal to C++
>> a C subset). [for example....]
WES>These examples may be problems for the instructor, but not for the
>They are comparing Pascal and C++ as "first language" so the student will
>actually be switching languages. (Unless they learned the "wrong" language
>in high school.)
I think Wes missed my point here. I taught C for years at Princeton and
these were the problems the students had that they *would not* in Pascal or
Ada. The programs look to the students correct, but aren't.
KEVIN>I'm very interested in the answer to this question; I've spent the
>last few years teaching Scheme to introductory CS students. Some "get
>it", some don't. I _don't_ think it has much to do directly with the
Kevin again points out to me later that the students aren't switching. I
was well aware of this! Actually my first CS course was in Scheme. There
is very little syntax to Scheme and it does a nice job of levelling the
playing field. I find that the distinction between those who "get it" and
those who don't is whether or not they can handle recursion, which seems to
be very hard for beginners.
KEVIN> C++ _does_ have explicit pass by reference, with a syntax much like
Thanks for the pointer. All the C++ I've seen tends to look like C, so I
wasn't aware of this. Note that in Ada we commonly use "out" parameters, so
while I don't actually mention pass by reference, the syntax was very
awkward back when I taught C.
KEVIN> Certainly, but Pascal also has different operators for variable
>assignment (":=") and equality comparison ("=").
But the compiler catches the error!!! That's my key point. In Pascal or
Ada the compiler catches the error rather than the program just doing
KEVIN>But my experience is that students learning C/C++ quickly learn where
>the semicolons go; while students learning Pascal are never quite sure.
This is a deficiency of Pascal, and is noted in the paper comparing Pascal
and Ada in the latest Ada Letters (which goes a long way to prove syntax